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Report: Timeline for Axholme and the British Isles on the world stage

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 Bef 32  Jericho, Palestine   Jesus passed through Jericho where he healed blind beggars and inspired a local chief tax-collector named Zacchaeus to repent of his dishonest practices. The road between Jerusalem and Jericho is the setting for the Parable of the Good Samaritan.

Jericho may be the oldest continuously occupied city in the world having evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BC.

By about 9400 BC a town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings. Te town had a massive stone wall over 3.6m high, and 1.8m wide at the base. Inside the wall was a tower over 3.6m high, with an internal staircase of 22 stone steps. The wall and tower were unprecedented in human history, and would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct. The wall may have been a defence against flood water with the tower used for ceremonial purposes. 
Jesus (Joshua ,Yeshua) of Nazareth, ben David, son of God 
2 Abt 33  Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew (not a Christian), is crucified by Jews on Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem for claiming to be of the line of David, the Messiah (the 'anointed one' or 'Christ').

Only the apostle St. John (brother of St, James) with Jesus' mother Mary remained near the foot of the cross on Calvary as Christ dies. St. John (of Patmos) becomes the author of several New Testament works including the Gospel of John, the Epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation which he would write in on the Island of Patmos, Greece in 95 A.D. before dying at Ephesus, Ionia, Turkey abt 100 A.D.

3 years after Jesus' execution, Saul, known as Paul of Tarsus (5 B.C. to c 67 Rome) a Hellenistic (Hebrew) Jew, is traveling from Jerusalem 'on the road to Damascus', Syria, to arrest followers of Jesus of Nazareth. En route Paul encounters a blinding light and hears revelations from Christ and is converted. St. Paul who probably never met Jesus would be instrumental in documenting 14 epistles of the New Testament. He would be executed in Rome and his remains interred in 'St. Paul's Outside the Walls', Rome.

The Christian Bible which contains the Old and New Testaments was compiled between the 2nd and 12th centuries from historical stories and sagas to inform people 'what life is about; a human interpretation of divine inspiration'. The Old Testament is mainly metaphorical, figure of speech, expressing things in terms of another. The New Testament is regarded by scholars with greater objectivity, in that Jesus probably did exist and the case for his 'resurrection' may yet be proven by a man made religion, science.

The Western civilisation has benefited from its origin in the 'fertile crescent' of the middle east some 13,000 years ago. Man learned how to grow cereals on a scale to feed towns and armies. Armies developed weaponry and a language to share and document its victories. Unlike other continents EurAsia benefits from one land mass that shares a common East West latitude allowing Empires to flourish, innovation to develop and occasionally germs to spread. 
Jesus (Joshua ,Yeshua) of Nazareth, ben David, son of God 
3 43  Colchester, Essex, England   The long Roman conquest of Britannia begins. Aulus Plautius lands in Albion (which the Romans called Britannia; Latin derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai) with four legions and an equal number of auxiliaries. The Claudian Invasion is thought to have arrived at Rutupiae (Richborough Castle), Richborough, Sandwich, Kent, England. There are equally plausible arguments in favour of landings further west along the south coast such as Portchester, Hampshire, England, where Verica, the King of the Atrebates (capital Calleva Atrebatum [Silchester, Hampshire]) lived and may have appealed for Roman assistance after he was expelled in a coup.

Moving North, the invaders defeat the Britons, led by Caratacus and Togodumnus, in battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He halts at the Thames and waits for the Emperor Claudius I, who leads the march to Camulodunum (Colchester). Eleven British kings, probably including those of the Iceni (capital Venta Icenorum [Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk]) and Brigantes (capital Isurium Brigantum [Aldborough, North Yorkshire]), submit without a fight. Meanwhile, the future emperor Vespasian begins to subdue the south-west. The Romans begin to construct forts such as at Peterborough, and begin to construct a road that later becomes Ermine Street. 
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 4th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
4 43  Colchester, Essex, England   Guiderius succeeded his father Cymbeline to be King of the British Catuvellauni tribe. Cymbeline had voluntarily paid tribute to Rome, but Guiderius refused to pay. The Emperor Claudius responded by launching an invasion of Britannia, his General Aulus Plautius landing at Rutupiae, Richborough, Sandwich, Kent, England  Guiderius (Togodumnus), King of the Britons, King of the Catuvellauni 
5 43  Richborough Castle, Richborough (Rutupiae), Sandwich, Kent, England   Upon the accession of Claudius as Emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta, stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus. In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain distinguishing himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset.

Vespasian marched from Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester) to subdue the hostile Durotriges (capital Durnovaria [Dorchester, Dorset]) and Dumnonii (capital Isca Dumnoniorum [Exeter, Devon]) tribes captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset). He also invaded Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter). During this time he injured himself and had not fully recovered until he went to Egypt. These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. 
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus (Vespasian) Augustus, 9th Emperor of the Roman Empire (Flavian Dynasty) 
6 61  High Cross, Leicestershire, England   The Battle of Watling Street (60/1 A.D.), thought to have took place on the junction of Watling Street and the Fosse Way was a decisive Roman defeat of the Iceni Tribe led by Queen Boudica who was killed along with Trinovantes (people of the North Thames Estuary, capital Camulodunum [Colchester] said to be the oldest recorded town in Britain as it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79), and other British peoples.  Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
7 64  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   After 30 years of ministering the words of Christ, the apostle Simon nicknamed Peter (St. Peter) 'the Rock' after the Greek word 'Petrvs' by Jesus, one of the first disciples arrives in Rome and is martyred there. Crucified upside down because he said he was not worthy to die as Christ did. Peter is considered the first Pope (from Pape, Greek for father; Papa was in common useage in the 5th century) and as he was anointed by Christ, so to would he and his successors anoint by laying hands on those who would minister the new Christian Church.

St. Paul also dies in Rome bet. 64 and 67 A.D. during Emperor Nero's persecutions.

Peter probably died at the time of the Great Fire of Rome. Emperor Nero 'fiddled as Rome burned', and the Empire would be thrown into chaos within a year of Nero's death in 68 A.D. 
Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
8 66  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky   Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
9 68  Jerusalem, Palestine   Following outbreaks of revolt in Jerusalem, Nero sends his general Titus Flavius Vespasianu, son of the Emperor to be, Vespasian (founder of the short Flavian dynasty) to quell the uprising. After a siege, the Temple is 'accidentally' burnt down in 70 AD and by 26 Sep 70 the Romans had regained control. Titus razed what was left of the town, except a few parts of the wall as a reminder.

It took 60 years to rebuilt Jerusalem, renamed Aelia Capitolana. The Jewish population was deported and replaced by soldiers of the Roman 10th Legion.

Suffering punitive taxes, more revolts followed. The last one following Hadrian's outlawing of Judaism. The Bar Kochba revolt lasted 3 years to 135, and was only crushed by ten legions, a third of the Empire's army, at a cost of the lives of (acc. to Cassius Dio) 580,000 Jews. Many Jews were sold as slaves and many Jewish towns were destroyed, including Jerusalem. It marks the end of the old Israel, and the start of the Diaspora, the exodus of Jews.

For the Jew's part in the crucifixion of Christ, Christian disciples would write anti-Semitic texts in their gospels, New Testament, Matthew 27:25 "His blood be on us, and on our children" and the Jewish people would be persecuted for centuries. Similarly, Jesus, a jew, had taken the sins of man upon himself and forgiven his persecutors 
Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
10 Apr/May 122  Richborough Castle, Richborough (Rutupiae), Sandwich, Kent, England   Emperor Hadrian arrives in Britannia  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
11 24 Jun 122  York, North Yorkshire, England   Emperor Hadrian arrives in Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire, England) for the Feast of Fors Fortuna, Godess of Fortune and Luck favoured by many Roman soldiers.  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
12 Jul/Aug 122  Wallsend, Northumberland, England   Emperor Hadrian lies the foundation stone of his greatest project, Hadrian's Wall. Stretching across the neck of England 80 miles from the River Solway (Ituna) to the River Tyne (Tinea), The western third of the wall to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone.  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
13 126  The Pantheon, Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   Rebuilt The Pantheon  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
14 Between 132 and 135  Jerusalem, Palestine   Emperor Hadrian's cultural and political hellenization of Judea bought about a Jewish uprising led by Simon bar Kokhba (Son of the Star), Nasi (Prince) of Israel. 580,000 Jews killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages were razed to the ground as the Romans crushed the uprisings by 132. Jews were banned in perpetuity from Jerusalem and many fled to Saffarad (the Jewish word for Spain), there to be known to this day as Sephadic Jews (the exile from Jerusalem in Spain).  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
15 22 Mar 141  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius (Antoninus Pius) Augustus, 15th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
16 142  Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland   The 15th Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the building of The Antonine Wall in Britain between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, a distance of 39 miles. Construction took about 12 years to complete. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the Empire's troops to bolster its borders further north.  Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius (Antoninus Pius) Augustus, 15th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
17 Abt 201  Edessa (Urfa), Mesopotamia, Turkey   Edessa was the capital city of Osroene, a Syriac kingdom (in Syria, now modern day Urfa, Turkey) who's ruler Abgar IX (AD 177 to 212) was the first to adopt Christianity as a state religion (Syriac Christianity) in a kingdom (which were otherwise secular, separate from religion). Later, in abt. 312 Constantine I 'the Great' would adopt Christianity as the state religion in an Empire, the Church of the Holy Roman Empire. It is thought by some that Abgar IX led to the story of letters and between his predecessor Abgar V (4 BC and AD 50) and Jesus of Nazareth, according to Armenian tradition, Abgar V was the first Christian king converted to the faith by the Apostle Thaddeus (Addai) of Edessa. it is said that the reply of Jesus was given not in writing, but orally, and that the event took place in 32 AD. The Teaching of Addai is also the earliest account of an image of Jesus painted from life, enshrined by the ailing Abgar V in one of his palaces.  Father of Eutropia 
18 17 May 218  Dardania, Macedonia, Greece   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Eutropius 
19 Abt 250  England   From the early 3rd century to 293, Roman Britain (Britannia) was divided into two provinces, Britannia Superior (capital at Londinium [London]) and Britannia Inferior (capital at Eboracum [York]).

From 293 to 410: Britannia Superior was divided into Maxima Caesariensis (capital at Londinium [London]) and Britannia Prima (capital at Corinium [Cirencester]). Britannia Inferior was divided into Flavia Caesariensis (capital at Lindum [Lincoln]) and Britannia Secunda (capital at Eboracum [York]). 
Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
20 287  Saint-Maurice-en-Valais (Agaunum), Switzerland   In 287 Emperor Maximian, the father of Maxentius, had ordered Maurice (Mauritius) and his Theban legion, composed entirely of Christians, from Thebes, Egypt of 6,600 men to march to Gaul and put down the bagaudae (peasant insurgents). When Maximian ordered them to harass local Christians near Agaunum (now Saint-Maurice-en-Valais), Switzerland, they refused and Maximian ordered the unit punished by decimation (execution of 1 in 10). More orders followed, they still refused, and all were decimated. St. Maurice and the Theban Legion were widely venerated as martys.  Maximian (Maximianus), Emperor of the Western Roman Empire 
21 293  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   The Tetrarchy (Greek "leadership of four [people]") instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marked the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.

The Tetrarchy divided the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern portions. Each would be ruled by an Augustus, supported by a Caesar. Diocletian became Augustus of the Eastern empire, with Galerius as his Caesar. Constantius was appointed Caesar to the Western Augustus, Maximian, and married Theodora, Maximian's stepdaughter. They had six children. Constantius divorced his first wife (or concubine), Helena, by whom he already had a son, Constantine I. Constantius was given command of Gaul, Britannia and possibly Hispania

The Diocletianic Persecution (or Great Persecution) was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman empire. Christians had become regarded as disruptive in Roman society and stories of them drinking blood (where wine was represented the blood of Christ) were taken literally. Christians had adopted the sign of the Fish to secretly meet each other (Fish in Greek is Ichthys, or IXOYC an acronym of "Jesus Christ, God's son, savior"). In 303, Emperor Diocletian and his colleagues Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding the legal rights of Christians and demanding that they comply with traditional religious practices. Later edicts targeted the clergy and demanded universal sacrifice, ordering all inhabitants to sacrifice to the gods. The persecution varied in intensity across the Empire, weakest in Gaul and Britannia, where only the first edict was applied, and strongest in the Eastern provinces. Persecutory laws were nullified by different Emperors at different times, but Constantine I and Licinius's Edict of Milan in 313 has traditionally marked the end of the persecution.

This Tetrarchy lasted until abt 313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine I in the West and Licinius in the East. 
Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
22 20 Apr 295  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
23 23 Apr 303  Nicomedia (Nikomedeia, Izmit), Bithynia, Turkey   St. George of Lydda (b. 275/281 Nicomedia, Turkey d. 23 Apr 303) was according to tradition a Roman soldier in the Guard of Emperor Diocletian, venerated as a Christian martyr. His name 'George' meant 'worker of the land'. In 302 Emperor Diocletian issued an edict that every Christian soldier in the army should be arrested and every other soldier should offer a sacrifice to the Pagan gods. But George objected and with the courage of his faith approached the Emperor and ruler. Diocletian was upset, not wanting to lose his best Tribune and the son of his best official, Geronzio. George loudly renounced the Emperor's edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and Tribunes he claimed himself to be a Christian and declared his worship of Jesus Christ. Diocletian's attempted to convert George by offering gifts, but George never accepted. Diocletian was left with no choice but to have him executed for his refusal. Before the execution George gave his wealth to the poor. After torture sessions, including laceration on a wheel of swords from which he was resuscitated three times, George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 Apr 303 and buried at Lydda, Palestine. Immortalised by Crusaders returning to England in the tale of 'George and the Dragon'. Adopted as Patron Saint of England by King Edward III, an admirer of chivalry dedicated St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in his honour (England's previous Patron Saint was St. Edmund the Martyr, King of East Anglia b. 841 d. 20 Nov 869 interred at Bury St Edmunds [Beadoriceworth], Suffolk, England). Shakespeare's Henry V rallies his English (and Welsh) army at Agincourt (Azincourt) with the cry ?God for Harry, England and St. George". He is also Patron Saint of Aragon, Catalonia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Lithuania, Palestine, Portugal and Russia.  Maximian (Maximianus), Emperor of the Western Roman Empire 
24 Bef 304  St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England   St. Alban was the first British Christian martyr. He had sheltered a Christian priest in his home who had converted and baptised him. Alban was sentenced by a Roman magistrate and executed by decapitation.  Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
25 305    By 305 the Roman Empire was ruled by a Tetrarchy of four Augustus (Emperors). The four Tetrarchic capitals were:

- Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) in northwestern Asia Minor, to defence against invasion from the Balkans and Persia's Sassanids was the capital of Diocletian, the eastern (and most senior) Augustus; under Constantine the Great, in 318, this became the pretorian prefecture Oriens 'the East', the core of later Byzantium.

- Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) in the Vojvodina region near Belgrade, on the Danube border was the capital of Galerius, the eastern Caesar; this was to become the Balkans-Danube prefecture Illyricum.

- Mediolanum (Milan, Spain) near the Alps was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus; later "Italia et Africa".

- Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border, it had been the capital of Gallic emperor Tetricus I; this quarter became the prefecture Galliae.

By the middle of 310 Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics. His final act survives: a letter to the provincials posted in Nicomedia on 30 Apr 311, proclaiming an end to the persecutions, and the resumption of religious toleration. He died soon after the edict's proclamation, destroying what little remained of the tetrarchy. Maximin mobilized and seized Asia Minor then fortified northern Italy, and strengthened his support in the Christian community by allowing it to elect a new Bishop of Rome, Eusebius 
Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
26 307  Lateran Palace, Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   To seal an alliance for control of the Tetrarchy (government where power is divided between four individuals), Emperor Maximianus betrothed his daughter Fausta in 293 to Constantine I who married her in 307.

Fausta brought to the marriage the Domus Laterani, once the home of Lucius Sextius Lateranus a Roman tribune of the plebs in 375 to 367 B.C., then renamed as Domus Faustae 'House of Fausta'. Around 313 Constantine I gifted it to the Bishop of Rome from where it became known as the 'Lateran', the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran, the future home of government by the Pope. 
Fausta FlaviaMaxima 
27 28 Oct 312  The Milvian Bridge, Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   While crossing the Alps from Gaul to conquer Rome and its Eastern provinces, Constantine and his army see a blazing cross in the night sky. That night in his tent, he is visited by Christ who says 'By this sign, conquer'. He gives orders to inscribe the heavenly sign on his soldier's shields and marched on to conquer the pagan romans.

Rome was defended by Emperor Maxentius, Constantine's brother-in-law, with twice the number of troops but Constantine was victorious pushing the defenders and Maxentius back into The Tiber. Maxentius drowned but his body was recovered, decapitated and his head paraded victoriously around Rome by Constantine.

Constantine entered Rome on 29 Oct 312 and not forgetting to whom he owed his triumph, and turning his back on a millennium of pagan tradition, became its first 'Christian' Roman Emperor 
Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
28 Mar 313  Milan (Mediolanum), Lombardy, Italy   Constantine I meets in Milan with Licinius, Emperor of Rome in the East to agree a marriage to Constantine's step sister and thereby unite the Empire.  Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
29 Abt 324  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   Constantine 'the Great' again, guided by Christ walking with him, marked out plans with a spear for the redevelopment of the pagan city of Byzantion, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 B.C. and named after their king Byzas, to serve as a Christian capital, the 'New Rome', the City of Constantine. The New Rome would be built on seven hills, just as was Old Rome. The Byzantine Empire (named Byzantium by scholars in the 16th century to identify what remained after the collapse of the 'Old Rome' in the west) would continue for 1,000 years.  Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
30 325  Nicaea (Iznik), Bithynia, Turkey   Constantine invited all 1800 bishops of the Christian church to travel from their episcopal see (overseer spokesperson, a Bishop, Greek: episkopos; see, 'seat' Latin: sedes) to the First (Ecumenical) Council of Nicaea in Nicaea, Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey) to agree their understanding of Christian belief. The council would later receive the epithet (name) 'Universal' (Oecumenical). Although Constantine and many invitees did not attend, the Eastern bishops formed the majority with Latin-speaking provinces sending at least five representatives. The predominant language in the Western Roman Empire was Latin (from Latium a region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew) although many inhabitants across both halves of the Empire were bilingual. Pope Silvester I declined to attend, pleading infirmity, but was represented by two priests. The Council established the basis of the 'Holy See', an episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, or Pope.

On the agenda was the Arian question regarding the relationship between God the Father and Jesus, a doctrine propounded by Arius, a deacon of the Church of Alexandria. Arius asked was the Father and Son one in purpose only or also one in being. The council would also decide on what date they should celebrate the Paschal or Easter observation and other ecumenical issues.

The council drew up the 'Nicene Creed', a statement of basic beliefs which is still used today by many churches and stated:
- Jesus Christ is described as "God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God," confirming his divinity. When all light sources were natural, the essence of light was considered to be identical, regardless of its form.
- Jesus Christ is said to be "begotten, not made", asserting him co-eternal with God, and confirming it by stating his role in the Creation. Basically, they were saying that Jesus was God, and God's son, not a creation of God. This is considered one of the mysteries of the Christian Church.
- Finally, he is said to be "from the substance of the Father," sharing the same divine nature of God not man, in direct opposition to Arianism. This was vital because if Christ was not the Incarnate Logos (Word of God) with the same fully divine nature, mere humans could not hope to share in eternal life through salvation. Some ascribe the term 'consubstantial' (homoousios), meaning "of one substance" (of the Father), to Constantine who, on this particular point, may have chosen to exercise his authority.
- Easter was to be celebrated on the Sunday after the full moon following the spring equinox.

The twenty disciplinary laws (canons) agreed at Nicaea were intended to legislate for the entire Christian world. As the discussions were held in the East of the Roman Empire and in Greek language, western Bishops would later learn of decisions made from the Pope in Rome after some interpretation and translation and travel delay. The writings of Arius were condemned at the Council of Nicaea and he was exiled but later pardoned and his theology rehabilitated in 335 and later favoured by Constantine's sons, with later consequences. In the 340s a Gothic leader, Ulfila, visited Constantinople and was ordained an Arian Bishop. He devised a Gothic alphabet to translate the Gospels which nearly all Germanic tribes adopted. So when the Western Roman Empire succumbed to barbarian rule in the mid 5th century they imported their Arian beliefs that had been condemed by Ecumenical Councils.  
Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
31 Abt 325  Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   Constantine I's mother Helena was in charge of a journey to Jerusalem to gather Christian relics. According to legend she recovered remains of the 'true cross' upon which Christ had been crucified. These relics resurface 600 years later during Henry 'the Fowler''s reign.

Helena ordered earth and rubble to be cleared from the site and that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre should, as Constantine demanded, be raised 'surpassing all the churches of the world in beauty', 
Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
32 11 May 330  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   Before Emperor Hadrian had built his Wall in Britannia, expansion of the Roman Empire had reached its limits in the West and fortunes shifted to richer opportunities in the Eastern Provinces. The West was dogged with over bearing tax collection, neglected and left to wither.

Constantine inaugurates The city of Constantinople (New Rome). Those privileged to live in the new capital adopted the name Byzantine, and as inhabitants of the Empire as Romans (in their Greek language, Romaioi). 
Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
33 28 Sep 351  Osijek (Mursa), Pannonia, Croatia   The Battle of Mursa Major was fought in 351 between the Eastern Roman army led by Constantius II and western forces supporting the pagan usurper Magnentius.

The battle was one of the bloodiest in Roman military history. Magnentius lost two-thirds of his troops, and Constantius about half, a total of over 50,000 casualties, at a time when the Roman Empire was under severe external pressure from Goths, Alamanni, Persians and internal dissensers and rebellions.

Flavius Magnus Magnentius (b. 303 Samarobriva [Bridge (briva) on the Somme (Samara), France], Gaul d. 11 Aug 353 Mons Seleucus, Hautes-Alpes, France) lost the battle and would suffer another final defeat, two years later at Mons Seleucus 
Constantius II, 3rd Emperor of the Christian Western Roman Empire 
34 28 Sep 351  Osijek (Mursa), Pannonia, Croatia   The Battle of Mursa Major was fought between Magnentius who lost upwards of two-thirds of his troops, and Constantius about half of his army, a total of over 50,000 casualties.

The Roman soldier and historian Ammianus Marcellinus (b. 325/330 d. aft. 391) described the year-long war that occurred in Roman Britain near the end of the Roman occupation of the island as a barbarica conspiratio (Gresat Conspiracy) that capitalized on a depleted military force in the province brought about by Magnentius' losses at the Battle of Mursa Major. 
Magnentius'the Usurper' 
35 Aug 353  La Bâtie-Montsaléon, Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France   The Battle of Mons Seleucus was fought between the forces of the legitimate Roman Emperor Constantius II and the forces of the usurper Magnentius. Constantius' forces were victorious, and Magnentius later committed suicide.  Magnentius'the Usurper' 
36 16 Feb 374  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Valens, Emperor of the Christian Eastern Roman Empire 
37 09 Aug 378  Edirne (Adrianople, Hadrianopolis), Thrace, Turkey   The Battle of Adrianople ended with an overwhelming victory for the Goths over an Eastern Roman Empire Army led by Emperor Valens. The battle represented a turning point in military history, with heavy cavalry triumphing over Roman infantry and ushered in the age of the Medieval knight. The battle is often considered the start of the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire (by the 5th century). The Eastern Roman Empire, would ultimately withstand Gothic invasions and become known as the Byzantine Empire.  Valens, Emperor of the Christian Eastern Roman Empire 
38 Abt 380  Medina (Yathrib), Saudi Arabia   Tub'a Abu Kariba As'ad (Abu Kariba), Himyarite King of Yemen, ruled a polytheism people of Yemen between 390 and 420. Leading a military incursion into northern Arabia to prevent Byzantine influence controlling the spice trade and routes to India, he travelled north through Yathrib leaving one of his sons in charge. He soon receives news that the people of Yathrib revolted and killed his son. He returns and wreaks vengeance, but falls ill and is restored to health by Jewish scholars who convert him to Judaism. The Himyarite kingdom ended with the death of King Yusif As'ar Yath'ar after battling with Ethiopean Christians in 525.  Qusayy (Zayd)'Mujammi' ibn Kilab, Progenitor of the Quraish tribe 
39 27 Feb 380  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   He is also known for making Nicene Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire. Under anti-heresy legislation, If you did not acknowledge the Christian God then you were a heretic, not a citizen of Rome and liable to persecution.  Theodosius I, Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
40 386  Milan (Mediolanum), Lombardy, Italy   In the summer of 386, after having read an account of the life of St. Anthony of the Desert (b. 251 Herakleopolis Magna, Egypt d. 356 Mount Colzim, Egypt) the first known ascetic (religious and spiritual pursuit) going into the wilderness, who helped spread the concept of monasticism, which greatly inspired Augustine (later St. Augustine of Hippo b. 13 Nov 354 Tagaste (Souk Ahras), Algeria d. 28 Aug 430 Hippo Regius, Numidia (Annaba), Algeria) abandons rhetoric and converts to Christianity. Augustine was the father of the Latin (language) Church and one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. He defined the (Augustinian) concepts of original sin, of a just war and the concept of purgatory (that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death where purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those that died in communion with the Church). His teaching provided fuel for later theology. After Rome is sacked in 410, Augustine's writes 'that the City of God is not shaken by events on earth', which chimes with the barbaric times to uphold the Christian faith.   Theodosius I, Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
41 390  Milan Cathedral, Milan (Mediolanum), Lombardy, Italy   Theodosius I was threatened with excommunication by Bishop Ambrose of Milan (b. 337/40 d. 4 Apr 397) for the massacre of 7,000 persons at Thessalonica in 390, after the murder of the Roman governor there by rioters. Ambrose told Theodosius to imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt. Ambrose readmitted the emperor to the Eucharist only after several months of penance. The incident showed how power could shift to a Bishop of the Christian church at the Western edge of the Roman empire, even when facing a strong Emperor. the controversy of John Chrysostom (golden mouthed) (b. 349 d. 407), Archbishop of Constantinople whose reforms called for service rather than glorification went down badly, particularly with Aelia Eudoxia, the wife of a much weaker eastern Emperor Arcadius and led to a crushing defeat and banishment of the Bishop.

Bishop Ambrose was a master of rhetoric, being older and more experienced, he most influence Augustine (St. Augustine of Hippo) during his time in Milan. 
Theodosius I, Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
42 24 Aug 410  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   The Visigoths (West Goths), led by Alaric I sack Rome on 24 Aug 410. This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to an enemy. Some historians see this as a major landmark in the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire. The West fell into 'the dark ages' when civilised life was thought to have collapsed. After Rome's collapse, the Western Church would begin to fill the power vacuum.  Honorius, Western Roman Emperor 
43 24 Aug 410  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   The Visigoths (West Goths) were one of two main branches of Germanic Goth tribes, the Ostrogoths (East Goths) being the other. Together these tribes were among the barbarians who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period.

On 24 Aug 410 Rome is sacked by Visigoths led by Araric I the first Germanic leader to take the city. 
Alaric I, King of the Visigoths 
44 412  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   Under Theodosius II new walls were built 1.5km to the west of the original Constantinian defenses, and a year later a triple line of fortifications were completed. These would protect the city from all invaders until 1204 and then only due to deception. The Theodosian walls withstood all until the Turkish gunpowder and cannon balls of May 1453, they are still impressive today.  Theodosius II, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
45 Abt 422  The Basilica of St. Simeon, Aleppo, Syria   Respected by the Emperor Theodosius and his wife, Simeon (St. Symeon the Stylite, the Pillar Saint b. abt 390 to 2 Sep 459, Greek: Stylos, column) begins his 37 year vigil atop of an 18m column in about 422 on the crossroads between Alleppo and Antioch, and Apamea and Cyrrhus. His actions were to influence and guide the monastic lifestyle of suffrage, renouncing worldly pursuits in order to fully devote their lives to spiritual work.

The Basilica of St. Simeon was consecrated in 475 in the Common or Christian Era (CE, equates to AD). 
Theodosius II, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
46 434  Germany   Attila the Hun, was Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. Theodosius II paid him tribute to avoid conflict in the Eastern Roman Empire.  Theodosius II, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
47 Abt 450  England   The Romano-British province of Britannia, home of the native Britons was invaded In the 5th century mainly by Saxons (from northwest Germany below Jutland) and Angles (from Angeln or Anglia, a peninsula in Southern Schleswig, Germany, protruding into the Bay of Kiel) also by Jutes (from Jutland, Denmark) and other Germanic tribes. This leads to the modern term, Anglo-Saxons. England and English are derived from the names Angles and Angeln.  Cerdic, King of Wessex, House of Cedric 'Cerdicingas' 
48 450  Ireland   A Latin Life of St. Patrick, says that Niall led Irish raids on the Romano-British province of Britannia, and in one of those raids Patrick (b. abt. 390 d. 461) and his sisters were abducted. From 450 Patrick is performing Christian missionary work in the North and West of Ireland. By the 8th century he would become the Patron Saint of Ireland.   Niall'ofthe Nine Hostages (Noígíallach)' of the Uí Néill dynasty, Monarch of Ireland 
49 451  Chalcedon, Turkey   The Council of Chalcedon is considered by many Chistians to be the Fourth Ecumenical Council following on from Nicaea (325), Constantinople (381) and Ephesus (431). The First Council of Nicaea had declared that the Father and the Son were divine, and of the same substance 'consubstantial', as expressed in the Nicene Creed. As Christ had lived and died on Earth as a man this definition troubled some Christian leaders, notably Nestorius (386 to 451) Archbishop of Constantinople who considered Christ had two separate natures (dyophysite) human and divine. Cyril of Alexandria (later St, Cyril, 376 to 444) was Pope of Alexandria when the city was at its height of influence in the Roman Empire and believed Christ's human and divine natures came together in his human form, as wine mixes with water, rather than separate as does oil. At the Council of Ephesus Cyril repudiated and banished Nestorius, his ideas were rejected and led to the Nestorianism Schism which eventually sealed the separation of the Assyrian Church of the East.

Later at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 a compromise was reached, Nestorius' 'essence' and 'person' of Christ were recognised as two natures, but were without division or separation, and this Hypostatic union became the orthodox doctrine from which the Holy Trinity of God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost were developed "three Hypostases in one Ousia", the Chalcedonian Creed.

The Chalcedon Council and all following councils were not recognized by the Assyrian Church of the East which continued to expand into Persia, India and eventually China by 635. The Xian Tablet, an imposing stone monument erected by the Church of the East in Feb 781 at Chou-Chih (Pinyin, 'Zhouzhi') 50 miles south-west of Chang'an (Xi'an) the Chinese capital in the reign of Tang Taizong (Tang Dynasty) commonly (if incorrectly) called the Nestorian Stele has a long inscription in Chinese and Syriac describing the Church's missionary activity in the 7th and 8th centuries.

Mar (Syriac; literally meaning 'my lord') Timothy I (727-823) of Baghdad was a writer of scientific, theological, liturgical, and canonical books. He was familiar with the Abbasid court and with other members of the Assyrian Church of the East assisted in the translation of Greek works by Aristotle and others into Arabic. Timothy assumed the leadership of the Church of the East shortly before the erection of the Xian Tablet. He consecrated a metropolitan bishop for 'the country of the Turks' (Beth Turkaye), implying that there were already substantial Assyrian communities in Central Asia at this period, and in one of his letters mentioned a large Christian community in Tibet (Beth Tuptaye).

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria also took a different position over Christological theology from that of the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches at The Chalcedon Council. The precise differences in theology that caused the split are still disputed, highly technical and mainly concerned with the nature of Christ. The foundational roots of the Church are based in Egypt but it has a worldwide following. According to tradition the Coptic Orthodox Church is the Church of Alexandria which was established by Saint Mark the apostle and evangelist in the middle of the 1st century (approx. AD 42). In 2010 Coptic Christians are a minority (10%) of religious followers in the secular state of Eqypt, the majority being Muslim, Egypt recognises Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia law. 
Marcian, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
50 28 Jun 451  Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Marcian, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 

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