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Report: Timeline for Axholme: Lincolnshire, Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 24 Jun 122  York, North Yorkshire, England   Emperor Hadrian arrives in Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire, England) for the Feast of Fors Fortuna, Godess of Fortune and Luck favoured by many Roman soldiers.  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
2 12 Oct 633  Hatfield Chase, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England   Penda participated in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian King Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
3 15 Nov 655  Cock Beck, Pendas Fields, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England   Penda, the last of Britain's pagan kings, was unexpectedly defeated and slain by Osiwu's army at the Battle of the Winwaed  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
4 15 Nov 655  Cock Beck, Pendas Fields, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England   Oswiu unexpectedly defeats and slays Penda (who had earlier slew his brother Oswald) at the Battle of the Winwaed.

He established himself as King of Mercia, setting up his son-in-law, Penda's son Peada as a subject king 
Oswiu of Northumbria, King of Bernicia 
5 664  Whitby Abbey, Whitby, North Yorkshire, England   The Synod of Whitby was called to settle the Easter controversy, whether Easter should be observed according to Celtic or Roman Christian tradition. The matter was settled by King Oswiu who stated that Easter and monastic tonsure (monks hair cuts) would be observed according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practiced by Iona (Inner, Hebrides, Scotland where Celtic monks from Ireland and 'Skellig Michael' in the Atlantic off County Kerry, Ireland had migrated). Many Minsters were built following the agreements reached at Whitby.

In attendance at Whitby Abbey was an Anglo-Saxon monk, Cuthbert, of Northumbrian origin. His old abbot, Eata, called on Cuthbert who embraced the Roman customs to introduce them at Lindisfarne. It was an ungrateful task, but Cuthbert disarmed opposition with a loving and patient nature. In 676 Cuthbert adopted a solitary life and retired to a cave, but in 684, Cuthbert was elected and persuaded to take up the bishopric of Lindisfarne. In 686 Cuthbert returned to his cell on Inner Farne Island, Bamburgh, Northumberland, where he died in 687. St. Cuthbert was buried at Lindisfarne.

The Lindisfarne Gospels, illuminated Latin manuscripts of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, presumed to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698, died in 721 are believed produced in honour of St. Cuthbert. 
Oswiu of Northumbria, King of Bernicia 
6 867  York, North Yorkshire, England   In 867 Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the Danelaw, after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht, as a puppet king. Despite the pillaging of the kingdom, Viking rule brought lucrative trade to Northumbria, especially at their capital JˇrvÝk, (York).

Danes who settled in England's eastern lands tended to wear eye-liner, shave the back of their heads and even bathe every Saturday. 
Ivar'the Boneless' Ragnarsson 
7 867  York, North Yorkshire, England   Conquered Northumbria with his brother Ivar the Boneless  Hvitserk (Halfdan) Ragnarsson 
8 Nov 1013  Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Sweyn 'Forkbeard' lands south of York, where Danish settlements were at their densest, probably Gainsborough, the furthest location a longboat could navigate. Local Danish settlers and Anglo-Saxon nobles submitting to his rule as he travelled south to Wessex to claim the English throne.  Sweyn I(Svend ,Svein)'Forkbeard (Tvesk¨g)' Haraldsson, King of Denmark and EnglandSweyn I(Svend ,Svein)'Forkbeard (Tvesk¨g)' Haraldsson, King of Denmark and England 
9 Nov 1013  Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   In the winter, Canute's father Forkbeard was in the process of consolidating his kingship in Mercia, leaving Canute in charge of the fleet and the base of the army at Gainsborough.  Canute (Knut ,Knud ,Cnut)'the Great', King of England, Denmark and NorwayCanute (Knut ,Knud ,Cnut)'the Great', King of England, Denmark and Norway 
10 1018  York, North Yorkshire, England   By the end of 1018, Canute had managed to screw a 100 per cent income tax out of his subjects to pay off his supporters and fill his treasure chests. Wulfstan, Archbishop of York fearing 'the end of days' persuaded Canute to uphold the laws devised by his English predecessor kings. Canute had already married Ethelred's widow Emma as his own spoil of war, never divorcing his first wife Aelgifu of Northampton. Emma's mother was Danish and she probably spoke Danish. Emma had a West Saxon pedigree and class.  Canute (Knut ,Knud ,Cnut)'the Great', King of England, Denmark and NorwayCanute (Knut ,Knud ,Cnut)'the Great', King of England, Denmark and Norway 
11 20 Sep 1066  Fulford, York, North Yorkshire, England   At the Battle of Fulford, King Harald III of Norway Hardrada and Tostig, his English ally, fought and defeated the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar. Tostig was Harold II Godwineson's banished brother  Edwin (Eadwyne ,Eadwine), Earl of Mercia 
12 20 Sep 1066  Fulford, York, North Yorkshire, England   With his ally Harald 'Hardrada', King of Norway, Tostig defeats earls Morcar of Northumbria and his brother Edwin of Mercia at the Battle of Fulford  Tostig Godwineson, Earl of Northumbria 
13 20 Sep 1066  Fulford, York, North Yorkshire, England   Fought with his brother and was defeated at the Battle of Fulford by King Harald III of Norway Hardrada and Tostig, Harold II Godwineson's banished brother  Morcar, Earl of Northumbria 
14 20 Sep 1066  Fulford, York, North Yorkshire, England   By mid Sep 1066 Harald 'Hardrada' has landed his invasion fleet of 300 ships south of York and met up with his new ally Tostig Godwineson, deposed Earl of Northumbria. Only the earls Morcar of Northumbria and his brother Edwin of Mercia were on hand to confront them. Harald 'Hardrada' and Tostig Godwineson defeat the earls, who escape death at the Battle of Fulford. The city of York surrenders and leading citizens are taken hostage.  Harald III'Hardrňde (Hardrada ,Hard-Ruler)' Sigurdsson, King of Norway and Denmark 
15 25 Sep 1066  Stamford Bridge, York, North Yorkshire, England   The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by the failed invasion attempted by Harald 'Hardrada', King of Norway, who was defeated by the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II Godwineson in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.

Harald 'Hardrada', King of Norway had just defeated the army of the northern earls Morcar of Northumbria and his brother Edwin of Mercia at the Battle of Fulford two miles south of York. After a lengthy forced march up to Stamford Bridge that took place in just four days King Harold Godwineson of England caught Harald's force by surprise and unarmoured. After a stubborn battle, the majority of the Norwegians were killed along with Harald 'Hardrada' and Harold's brother Tostig. Harold's victory was short-lived as he would be defeated and killed at Hastings less than three weeks later. 
Harold II Godwineson, King of England, Earl of WessexHarold II Godwineson, King of England, Earl of Wessex 
16 25 Sep 1066  Stamford Bridge, York, North Yorkshire, England   Harold II Godwineson, King of England arrives to engage battle. First he offers his brother Tostig, a third of his kingdom. When Tostig asks what his ally Harald 'Hardrada' might receive, Harold replies, 7 feet of English earth, enough to bury the exceedingly tall Viking. Battle commences and Tostig and Harald 'Hardrada' are slain. 20 out of the 300 ships return to Norway, never again would Vikings return.  Harald III'Hardrňde (Hardrada ,Hard-Ruler)' Sigurdsson, King of Norway and Denmark 
17 Aft 14 Oct 1066  Adlingfleet, East Yorkshire, England   After the Battle of Hastings, Edgar 'the Outlaw', Ătheling was reputed to have made a treaty with the remaining English and a Viking Fleet who wintered at a place that may have come to be known as Ătheling's fleet, or in Domesday as Adelingesfluet now Adlingfleet. When the best way of transport was by water that position was unasaleable. Together they would have blocked any attempt by William 'the Bastard' to occupy the north. Unfortunately William was a good diplomat and realised the Viking's were more interested in silver then anything else. He bribed the Vikings to leave and the English were too weak to resist.  Edgar'the Outlaw', Ătheling 
18 1086  Amcotts, Lincolnshire, England   Referenced in The Domesday Book. Land owned by Siward Barn and Siward Rufus  Siward Barn'the Red (Radbairn)''the Warrior' FitzOsbern 
19 Aft 1100  Isle of Axholme, Lincolnshire, England   Nigel and his brother William were ardent supporters of Henry I. On Henry's succession, Nigel was rewarded with the escheated fief (ownerless property title) of Geoffrey de la Guerche (de Wirce), of which Melton (Mowbray) was the head, and with forfeited lands in Yorkshire (including the Isle of Axholme)  Nele (Nigel) ,'the Black' d'Albini (d'Aubigny), Lord of MowbrayNele (Nigel) ,'the Black' d'Albini (d'Aubigny), Lord of Mowbray 
20 Bef 1122  Gainsborough Castle, Castle Hills, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Founded Gainsborough Castle  Roger'the Poitevin (de Poitou)' de Montgomery 
21 1139  Thornton Abbey, Thornton Curtis, Lincolnshire, England   Founded Thornton Abbey as a priory in 1139  William le Gros, 1st Earl of Albemarle, Count of Aumale 
22 02 Feb 1141  Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England   Led the attack against King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln ('the Joust of Lincoln') with Robert 1st Earl of Gloucester and Madog ap Maredudd

Gilbert de Gant was captured by Ranulf de Gernon, Earl of Chester uncle to Hawyse (Avis) de Roumare. Earl Ranulf compelled Gilbert de Gant to marry Hawyse (Avis) making Gilbert, Earl of Lincoln in her right 
Ranulph IV de Meschines de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester 
23 02 Feb 1141  Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England   At Christmas 1140 Ranulph 2nd Earl of Chester has seized the city of Lincoln and left troops holding Lincoln Castle. King Stephen of England arrived to relieve the city and was besieging the Castle from his encampment within Lincoln Cathedral when he found himself attacked by the relief force, led by the Earl of Chester and commanded by Robert 1st Earl of Gloucester half-brother to and loyal supporter of Empress Matilda (Robert and Matlida were Stephen's cousins). The Battle of Lincoln ('the Joust of Lincoln') took place on the plain between the Foss Dyke and Lincoln Castle. Stephen was defeated and taken as a prisoner to Bristol, England. Stephen was later exchanged for the Earl of Gloucester and Matilda was defeated at the Battle of Winchester the following September, ending her brief ascendancy in the civil war with Stephen.  Stephen (╔tienne) de Blois, Last Norman King of EnglandStephen (╔tienne) de Blois, Last Norman King of England 
24 1143  Revesby Abbey, Revesby, Lincolnshire, England   Founded Revesby Abbey  William de Roumare (Romayre), 1st Earl of Lincoln, Baron of Kendall, Lord of Bolingbroke 
25 1150  Meaux Abbey, Meaux, East Yorkshire, England   Founded Meaux Abbey  William le Gros, 1st Earl of Albemarle, Count of Aumale 
26 Aft 1154  Marrick, Richmond, North Yorkshire, England   Founded Marrick Priory  Roger de Aske 
27 16 Mar 1190  York Castle, York, North Yorkshire, England   Richard de Malbis (Richard Malebisse) was a debtor of Aaron of Lincoln, an influential Jewish banker. When a fire broke out in the city of York, de Malbis used the opportunity to incite a mob to attack the home of a recently deceased agent of Aaron of Lincoln named Benedict of York, killing his widow and children and burning the house. Josce of York (Joseph), the leader of the Jewish community of York, obtained the permission of the warden of York Castle to remove his wife and children and the rest of the Jews into the castle, where they probably took refuge in a tower that stood where Clifford's Tower now stands. The mob surrounded the castle and when the warden left the castle, the Jews, fearing the entry of the mob, would not readmit him. The warden appealed to the sheriff, who called out the county militia. The militia laid siege to the tower for several days till on 16 March 1190 the tower caught fire. Many Jews either perished in the flames or took their own lives rather give themselves up to the mob; those who did surrender were killed. In all around 150 Jews died.

King Richard I's Lord Chancellor dismissed the sheriff and constable for failing to prevent the massacre and imposed a heavy fine on York's citizens. However, the ringleaders had fled and could not be brought to justice. 
Richard I'Coeurde Lion' Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of CyprusRichard I'Coeurde Lion' Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus 
28 Oct 1216  The Wash, Lincolnshire, England   Retreating from the French invasion, John took a safe route around the marshy area of the Wash to avoid the rebel held area of East Anglia. His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels), however, took a direct route across it and was lost to the unexpected incoming tide. This dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to dysentery and moving from place to place, he stayed one night at Sleaford Castle before dying on 18/9 October 1216 at Newark Castle.  John'Lackland (Sans Terre)' Plantagenet, King of England, Deposed Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandJohn'Lackland (Sans Terre)' Plantagenet, King of England, Deposed Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
29 20 May 1217  Lincoln Castle, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England   The 2nd Battle of Lincoln (the Battle of Lincoln Fair) occurred at Lincoln Castle during the The First Barons' War (1215-1217) a civil war in England, between King John and rebellious barons, led by Robert FitzWalter to install Prince Louis, future Louis VIII of France. Louis' forces led by The Comte de la Perche were attacked by a relief force under the command of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. William's wife's grandfather Gilbert Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke had fought at the 1st Battle of Lincoln. The heavy defeat led to Louis being expelled from his base in the southeast of England. The event is known as 'Lincoln Fair' after the looting that took place afterwards. The citizens had been loyal to Louis leading John's son and successor, Henry III's forces to sack the city.  William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (2nd creation) 
30 1237  York, North Yorkshire, England   The two kingdoms of England and Scotland, compromise in 1237 with the Treaty of York which defined the first boundary between the two kingdoms, running between the Solway Firth (in the west) and the mouth of the River Tweed (in the east)  Alexander II'the Peaceful', King of ScotsAlexander II'the Peaceful', King of Scots 
31 31 Jul 1255  Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England   8 year old Hugh of Lincoln disappeared on 31 Jul 1255 and his body was discovered in a well on 29 Aug 1255. Shortly after Hugh's disappearance, a local Jew named Copin (or Jopin) admitted to killing the child after he was threatened with torture. In his confession Copin stated that it was the custom of the Jews to crucify a Christian child every year (in fact Jews avoid blood with abhorrence as it is considered to defile). Copin was executed, and the story might have ended there were if not for a series of events that coincided with the disappearance.

Six months earlier, king Henry III had sold his rights to tax the Jews to his brother, Richard, Earl of Cornwall. Having lost this source of income, Henry decided he was eligible for the Jews' money if they were convicted of crimes. As a result of Lincoln's 'Blood Libel', some 90 Jews were arrested and held in the Tower of London charged with involvement in the ritual murder. 18 were hanged. it was the first time ever that a civil government handed out a death sentence for ritual murder, and King Henry was able to take over their property. The remaining Jews were pardoned and set free.

The child became a martyred christian, Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln with his shrine in Lincoln Cathedral. Only in 1955 did the Anglican Church apologise for 'the Blood Libel' 
Henry III Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandHenry III Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
32 Between 1286 and 1287  Aske, Richmond, North Yorkshire, England   Lord of Aske in 1286-7  Hugh de Aske 
33 Abt 1350  Westwoodside, Haxey, Lincolnshire, England   Lady de Mowbray, wife of John de Mowbray, was out riding towards Westwoodside on the hill that separates it from Haxey. As she went over the hill her silk riding hood was blown away by the wind. Thirteen farm workers in the field rushed to help and chased the hood all over the field. It was finally caught by one of the farm workers, but being too shy to hand it back to the lady, he gave it to one of the others to hand back to her. She thanked the farm worker who had returned the hood and said that he had acted like a Lord, whereas the worker who had actually caught the hood was a Fool. So amused was she by this act of chivalry and the resulting chase, that she donated 13 acres (53,000 sqm) of land on condition that the chase for the hood would be re-enacted each year. This re-enactment over the centuries became known as 'The Haxey Hood' and is still recreated on the afternoon of 6 Jan, the Twelfth Day of Christmas - or the day before if it should fall on a Sunday.  Elizabeth Segrave, Baroness Segrave 
34 1365  St. Peter & St. Paul Minster Church, Howden, East Yorkshire, England   Founded a chauntry in Howden Church  Richard de Aske 
35 1375  Foss Dyke, Lincolnshire, England   The Foss Dyke may be the oldest canal in England which is still in use. The canal connects the River Trent at Torksey, Lincolnshire to the River Witham at Lincoln, and is about 18 km (11 miles) long. Together with the 90km (56 miles) of Car Dyke on the western edge of The Fens in eastern England it formed part an important transport route from Peterborough to York. It was reputedly used by the Danes when they invaded England and by the Normans to carry stone to build Lincoln Cathedral in the 11th century. During the reign of King Henry I the canal is recorded as having been scoured out to increase its depth in 1121 but it deteriorated until by the 17th century it was virtually impassible. Katherine Swynford, who lived in the area, is credited with having organized a protest to repair it in 1375. At one time a major waterway for the transport of wool, it is now mostly used for leisure purposes.  Katherine Roet 
36 1379  Whitgift, Goole, East Yorkshire, England   Mentioned in the 1379 Poll-Tax for Whitgift.

Ladies often wanted their family name to be known, even though married. Researchers who document them sometimes scribe them with their husband's surname but often they are just documented with their first name and "wife of", then their husband's surname, yet if a lady was asked in person what their name is, then we have an example for the 1379 Poll-Tax for Whitgift Parish, e.g., "Isabella de Ellay", even though she was widowed to Sir Gerard de Usflete (the first). 
Isabella (Isabel de Ella) de Ellay, Dame and DowagerIsabella (Isabel de Ella) de Ellay, Dame and Dowager 
37 1397/8  Axholme Charterhouse, Low Melwood, Epworth, Lincolnshire, England   Founded Axholme Charterhouse, one of ten medieval Carthusian Charterhouses in England, centred around a pre-existing chapel at Low Melwood. The House of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary was suppressed as part of the dissolution of the monasteries in June 1538.  Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, 1st (2nd creation) Duke of Norfolk (deposed), 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron SegraveThomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, 1st (2nd creation) Duke of Norfolk (deposed), 6th Baron Mowbray, 7th Baron Segrave 
38 1406  Flamborough Head, Flamborough, East Yorkshire, England   The heir to the Scots throne becomes James I Stewart. Seizing the opportunity, while en route to France for his safety the 12 year old James I Stewart is captured by pirates off Flamborough Head and taken to Henry IV who holds him captive.  James I Stewart, King of ScotsJames I Stewart, King of Scots 
39 30 Dec 1460  Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England   Intercepted near Wakefield by a larger Lancastrian force, York and his son Edmund were killed. York was buried at Pontefract, but his head was put on a pike by the victorious Lancastrian, adorned by a mocking paper crown on Micklegate Bar, York, East Yorkshire, England. His remains were later moved to Fotheringhay Church, Fotheringhay , Northamptonshire, England  Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March 
40 29 Mar 1461  Towton, Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, England   Whilst Henry VI and his militaristic queen, Margaret of Anjou, were campaigning in the north of England, Richard "Warwick the Kingmaker" Neville (Edward IV's cousin) gained control of the capital and had Edward declared king in London in 1461. Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at Towton. In the War of the Roses, the Battle of Towton was the bloodiest in English history, with 20-30,000 dead (about 1% of the English population). Edward IV with assistance of the Duke of Norfolk routs Henry VI. The battle took place on Palm Sunday (the moveable feast hence date sometimes incorrectly quoted as 28th

His accession to the throne healed the breach of Bolingbroke's usurpation of the crown from the rightful king Richard II, and the heirs presumptive in Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March and Richard 3rd Duke of York. As such, it was necessary for the Lancastrians to defeat him if they ever wished to gain the throne of England 
Edward IV Plantagenet, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 7th Earl of March, House of YorkEdward IV Plantagenet, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 7th Earl of March, House of York 
41 29 Mar 1461  Towton, Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, England   Commanded the Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Towton  Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset 
42 1483  St. Oswald's Church, Althorpe, Lincolnshire, England   St. Oswald's Parish Church is built by John Neville on grounds used as a place of worship supported in 1185 by his 9th great grandfather-in-law, Sir Roger I de Mowbray, Lord of Mowbray  John Neville 
43 Bef 22 Aug 1485  The Old Hall, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Visits Lord Sir Thomas Burgh 1st Lord Burgh of Gainsborough at his new Manor house, known as The Old Hall, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England  Richard III Plantagenet, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Gloucester, House of YorkRichard III Plantagenet, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Gloucester, House of York 
44 Bef 22 Aug 1485  The Old Hall, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Receives a visit from Richard III King of England  Sir Thomas Burgh, 1st Lord Burgh of GainsboroughSir Thomas Burgh, 1st Lord Burgh of Gainsborough 
45 Aft 11 Jun 1509  The Old Hall, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Henry VIII visits Sir Edward Burgh on a tour of his realm  Sir Edward Burgh, 4th Baron Strabolgi 
46 Aft 11 Jun 1509  The Old Hall, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England   Henry VIII, without his wife Queen Katherine of Aragon, visits Sir Edward Burgh on a tour of his realm  Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and IrelandHenry VIII Tudor, King of England and Ireland 
47 Between 1536 and 1541  Lincolnshire, England   Henry VIII, now the Supreme Head of the Church of England, found that his Church owned one sixth of all the land in the kingdom. The Dissolution of the Monasteries was the formal process by which Henry disbanded monastic communities in England, Wales and Ireland and confiscated their property. List of monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII Other revolts against the authority of Rome's Church had been under way for some time, most of them related to the Protestant Reformation in Continental Europe.

The Lincolnshire Rising was a brief rebellion of Roman Catholics against the establishment of the Church of England. It began at St. James Church, Louth, after evensong on October 1, 1536, shortly after the closure of Louth Abbey. It quickly gained support in Horncastle, Caistor and other nearby towns. It ended on 10 Oct 1536, when King Henry VIII sent word for the occupiers to disperse or face the forces of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, which had already been mobilised. By October 14, few remained in Lincoln. Following the rising, Thomas Kendall, the vicar of Louth and its spiritual leader, was captured and executed.

On 13 October 1536, immediately following the failure of the Lincolnshire Rising, Robert Aske led a band of 9,000 followers in the "Pilgrimage of Grace" who entered and occupied York in protest against England's break with Rome and the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

The causes of the rebellion have long been debated by historians, but several key themes can be identified:

Economic Grievances - The northern gentry had concerns over the new Statute of Uses. There were also popular fears of a new sheep tax. The harvest of 1535 had also led to high food prices, which may have contributed to discontent.

Political Grievances - Many northerners had disliked the way in which Henry VIII had 'cast off' Catherine of Aragon. There was also anger at the rise of Thomas Cromwell.

Religious Grievances - The local church was, for many in the north, the centre of community life. Many ordinary peasants were worried that their church plate would be confiscated. There were also popular rumours at the time which hinted that baptism might be taxed. The recently released Ten Articles and the new order of prayer issued by the government in 1535 had also made official doctrine more reformed. This went against the conservative beliefs of most northerners. 
Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and IrelandHenry VIII Tudor, King of England and Ireland 
48 1536  Lincolnshire, England   The Burgh family suffered many family problems during Lord Thomas life, including bastardising his eldest sons children, coupled with national events, such as the involvement of his brother in law in suppressing thePilgrimage of Grace and the reformation, which Thomas found himself heavily involved with  Thomas Burgh, 1st Lord Burgh of Gainsborough, 5th Baron Strabolgi 
49 1536  Lincolnshire, England   Robert was one of the subsidy commissioners first attacked by the rebels in the Lincolnshire rebellion, and as soon as news reached the court he himself was despatched with orders for John Hussey, Lord Hussey. His part in the suppression of the rebellion and of the Pilgrimage of Grace (led by Robert Aske) is scarcely to be disentangled from that of his many namesakes. The dissolution of Stainfield was promptly carried through, and after leasing them in 1537 Tyrwhitt was granted the house, site and 662 acres of land in fee in the following year.

In 1536 Bardney Abbey was threatened with closure and forfeiture of all assets by King Henry VIII, a fate to be met by all the abbeys and priories in the country around this time. Six monks from Bardney, implicated in the rebellion, were hanged, drawn and quartered at Lincoln in Mar 1537. After the Lincolnshire Rising, the monastery surrendered to the King and was dissolved in 1538. Following the Dissolution the land was acquired by Sir Robert Tyrwhitt. He demolished the church and used the stone to convert the other monastic buildings into a fine house for himself and his family. He moved into the abbot's lodgings and converted the cloister into a walled garden. The rest, he left to fall into ruin.  
Robert Tyrwhitt 
50 1536  Lincolnshire, England   According to William Skipwith, the Pilgrimage of the Grace began with a mob attack on his brother in law Sir Thomas Heneage. William was also brother in law to Sir Robert Tyrwhitt who took part in the suppression of the rebellion  Sir Thomas Heneage 


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