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Report: Timeline for England

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 55 B.C.  Kent, England   Julius Caesar leads the first Roman invasion of Britain. Although he gained a beachhead on the coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul (France) for the winter. He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time.  Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic 
2   Gillingham Prison, Gillingham, Dorset, England   In Prison in Gillingham by Chatham Dockyards - possibly being used as labour to build the docks. The prison was built to take over after the end of the convict hulk system. He had been in convicy hulk Warrior in early 1840s with brother Pogson  John Pinder 
3 Bef 20 A.D.  Wearyall Hill, Glastonbury, Somerset, England   According to William of Malmesbury mentions Joseph's going to Britain in one passage of his Chronicle of the English Kings, written in the 1120s. He says Philip the Apostle sent twelve Christians to Britain, one of whom was his dearest friend, Joseph of Arimathea. Joseph is said to have arrived in Glastonbury by boat over the flooded Somerset Levels. On disembarking he stuck his staff into the ground and it flowered miraculously into the Glastonbury Thorn (or Holy Thorn). This is said to explain a hybrid Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) tree that only grows within a few miles of Glastonbury, and which flowers twice annually, once in spring and again around Christmas time (depending on the weather). Each year a sprig of thorn is cut, by the local Anglican vicar and the eldest child from St John's School, and sent to the Queen.

Henry VIII would make use of the Holy Thorn to provide evidence that Christianity was established in England before Catholicism.

The original Holy Thorn was a centre of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages but was chopped down during the English Civil War. A replacement thorn was planted in the 20th century on Wearyall Hill (originally in 1951 to mark the Festival of Britain; but the thorn had to be replanted the following year as the first attempt did not take). Many other examples of the thorn grow throughout Glastonbury including those in the grounds of Glastonbury Abbey, St. John's Church and Chalice Well.

Modern speculation initiated by Sabine Baring-Gould, A Book of Cornwall (1899) suggests Joseph was a tin merchant, whose connection with Britain came by the abundant tin mines of Cornwall. One version, popular during the Romantic period, even claims Joseph had taken Jesus to Britain as a boy. This was the inspiration for William Blake's mystical hymn Jerusalem. 
Joseph of Arimathea 
4 Abt 1245 B.C.  England   Legend suggests that the British race are descended from Trojans. Aeneas of Troy fled to Britain after the The Trojan War and siege of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks).

The Trojans brought Chariots which Julius Ceaser faced and reported about in 55 B.C. 
Aeneas, Trojan Hero 
5 43  Colchester, Essex, England   The long Roman conquest of Britannia begins. Aulus Plautius lands in Albion (which the Romans called Britannia; Latin derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai) with four legions and an equal number of auxiliaries. The Claudian Invasion is thought to have arrived at Rutupiae (Richborough Castle), Richborough, Sandwich, Kent, England. There are equally plausible arguments in favour of landings further west along the south coast such as Portchester, Hampshire, England, where Verica, the King of the Atrebates (capital Calleva Atrebatum [Silchester, Hampshire]) lived and may have appealed for Roman assistance after he was expelled in a coup.

Moving North, the invaders defeat the Britons, led by Caratacus and Togodumnus, in battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He halts at the Thames and waits for the Emperor Claudius I, who leads the march to Camulodunum (Colchester). Eleven British kings, probably including those of the Iceni (capital Venta Icenorum [Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk]) and Brigantes (capital Isurium Brigantum [Aldborough, North Yorkshire]), submit without a fight. Meanwhile, the future emperor Vespasian begins to subdue the south-west. The Romans begin to construct forts such as at Peterborough, and begin to construct a road that later becomes Ermine Street. 
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, 4th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
6 43  Colchester, Essex, England   Guiderius succeeded his father Cymbeline to be King of the British Catuvellauni tribe. Cymbeline had voluntarily paid tribute to Rome, but Guiderius refused to pay. The Emperor Claudius responded by launching an invasion of Britannia, his General Aulus Plautius landing at Rutupiae, Richborough, Sandwich, Kent, England  Guiderius (Togodumnus), King of the Britons, King of the Catuvellauni 
7 43  Richborough Castle, Richborough (Rutupiae), Sandwich, Kent, England   Upon the accession of Claudius as Emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta, stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus. In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain distinguishing himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset.

Vespasian marched from Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester) to subdue the hostile Durotriges (capital Durnovaria [Dorchester, Dorset]) and Dumnonii (capital Isca Dumnoniorum [Exeter, Devon]) tribes captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset). He also invaded Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter). During this time he injured himself and had not fully recovered until he went to Egypt. These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. 
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus (Vespasian) Augustus, 9th Emperor of the Roman Empire (Flavian Dynasty) 
8 61  High Cross, Leicestershire, England   The Battle of Watling Street (60/1 A.D.), thought to have took place on the junction of Watling Street and the Fosse Way was a decisive Roman defeat of the Iceni Tribe led by Queen Boudica who was killed along with Trinovantes (people of the North Thames Estuary, capital Camulodunum [Colchester] said to be the oldest recorded town in Britain as it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79), and other British peoples.  Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
9 Apr/May 122  Richborough Castle, Richborough (Rutupiae), Sandwich, Kent, England   Emperor Hadrian arrives in Britannia  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
10 24 Jun 122  York, North Yorkshire, England   Emperor Hadrian arrives in Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire, England) for the Feast of Fors Fortuna, Godess of Fortune and Luck favoured by many Roman soldiers.  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
11 Jul/Aug 122  Wallsend, Northumberland, England   Emperor Hadrian lies the foundation stone of his greatest project, Hadrian's Wall. Stretching across the neck of England 80 miles from the River Solway (Ituna) to the River Tyne (Tinea), The western third of the wall to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone.  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
12 Abt 250  England   From the early 3rd century to 293, Roman Britain (Britannia) was divided into two provinces, Britannia Superior (capital at Londinium [London]) and Britannia Inferior (capital at Eboracum [York]).

From 293 to 410: Britannia Superior was divided into Maxima Caesariensis (capital at Londinium [London]) and Britannia Prima (capital at Corinium [Cirencester]). Britannia Inferior was divided into Flavia Caesariensis (capital at Lindum [Lincoln]) and Britannia Secunda (capital at Eboracum [York]). 
Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
13 Bef 304  St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England   St. Alban was the first British Christian martyr. He had sheltered a Christian priest in his home who had converted and baptised him. Alban was sentenced by a Roman magistrate and executed by decapitation.  Constantius Chlorus, 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
14 Abt 450  England   The Romano-British province of Britannia, home of the native Britons was invaded In the 5th century mainly by Saxons (from northwest Germany below Jutland) and Angles (from Angeln or Anglia, a peninsula in Southern Schleswig, Germany, protruding into the Bay of Kiel) also by Jutes (from Jutland, Denmark) and other Germanic tribes. This leads to the modern term, Anglo-Saxons. England and English are derived from the names Angles and Angeln.  Cerdic, King of Wessex, House of Cedric 'Cerdicingas' 
15 495  Hampshire, England   Cerdic of Saxony lands in Hampshire with his son Cynric in three keels (ships). He is said to have fought a British king named Natanleod at Netley Marsh in Hampshire and killed him in 508, and to have fought at Charford (Cerdic's Ford) in 519, after which he becomes the first king in the land of the West Saxons, the king of Wessex.  Cerdic, King of Wessex, House of Cedric 'Cerdicingas' 
16 Abt 590  Kent, England   When Bertha, a Princess of Paris married the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent, she brought her chaplain, Liudhard, with her to England.

In Ireland Kevin (Caoimhín, Coemgen) of Glendalough (St. Kevin), establishes a church for his own community. The monastery at Glendalough, County Wicklow, Ireland become the parent of seven Celtic Christian Churches. 
Bertha (Bercta), Queen consort of Kent 
17 592  England   The Anglo-Saxon invasion of England was completed; by the time Ceawlin, King of Wessex died, little of southern England remained in the hands of the native Britons.  Ceawlin, King of Wessex 
18 597  Isle of Thanet, Kent, England   The influence of his wife Bertha, who he probably married before he came to the throne, may have led to Pope Gregory I's (from Grex meaning flock i.e. sheep, 'shepherd') decision to send Augustine (later St. Augustine) as a missionary from Rome (Pope Gregory I having seen Angle slaves in Rome reputedly says 'Not Angles but Angels'). Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet in 597. Shortly thereafter, Æthelberht who probably recognised the benefits of sharing the religious power adopted by his in-law Merovingian kings, was converted to Christianity, churches were established and wider-scale conversion to Christianity began. Æthelberht provided the new church with land in Canterbury, at what came to be known as St Augustine's Abbey, thus establishing one of the foundation-stones of what ultimately became the Anglican church.

Augustine's mission was only in part successful, establishing Roman Christian Bishops at London and Rochester in 604, and a school founded to train Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries . His ministry had failed in the west and north of the British Isles (and Ireland) where Celtic (rather than Roman) Christianity dominated as a result of missionaries following St. Patrick and St. Kevin. Augustine died in 604 and was soon revered as a saint. 
Æthelberht (Ethelbert), King of Kent 
19 15 Mar 607  Wessex, England   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Ceolwald 
20 Abt 624  Sutton Hoo, Woodbridge, Suffolk, England   Sutton Hoo is the site of two Anglo-Saxon cemeteries of the 6th century and early 7th century, one of which contained an undisturbed ship burial including a wealth of artifacts of outstanding art-historical and archaeological significance.

Discovered and excavated in 1939, is one of the most magnificent archaeological finds in England for its size and completeness.

In 1940 HM Chadwick, a pre-eminent Anglo-Saxon historian, gave his opinion that the ship-burial was probably the grave of King Rædwald of the East Angles 
Rædwald (Raedwald), King of East Angles 
21 Abt 628  Suffolk, England   The first English king to receive a Christian baptism and education before coming into his regnal power, and the first to abdicate in order to enter the monastic life. He played a most important part in the establishment of Christianity in his kingdom  Sigeberht, King of East Angles 
22 12 Oct 633  Hatfield Chase, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England   Penda participated in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian King Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
23 635  Lindisfarne (Holy Island), Northumberland, England   King Oswald may have visited Iona, Inner Hebrides, Scotland (the pre-eminent monastery of Irish Cetic monks) for his baptism. He requested missionaries from Iona rather than from the Roman backed mission in England. At first the monastery sent a new bishop named Cormán, but he met with no success and soon returned to Iona, reporting that the Northumbrians were too stubborn to be converted. Aidan (Áedán) who criticised Cormán's methods was sent as a replacement in 635. He chose to found his monastery at Lindisfarne, like Iona an island. St. Aidan is credited with bringing Celtic Christianity to Northumbria.

St. Bede the Venerable (b. 672/3 d. 26 May 735) would write Aidan's biography (amongst others including St. Cuthbert, St. Augustine, Edwin of Northumbria and Oswald of Northumbria) and describe the miracles attributed to him in his 'Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum' or 'An Ecclesiastical History of the English People' completed in 731 
Oswald of Bernicia, King of Northumbria 
24 640  Kent, England   Acc. to Bede, Eorcenberht, king of Kent was the first king in Britain to command that pagan 'idols' be destroyed and that Lent be observed  Eorcenberht, King of Kent 
25 05 Aug 642  Oswestry, Shropshire, England   Slew Oswald, King of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
26 648  Old Minster, Winchester, Hampshire, England   King Cenwalh builds a church (Old Minster) in Winchester  Cenwalh, King of Wessex 
27 Abt 653  Bulcamp, Blythburgh, Suffolk, England   At the Battle of Bulcamp, Penda's army slays Anna, King of East Angles and his son Jurmin  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
28 15 Nov 655  Cock Beck, Pendas Fields, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England   Penda, the last of Britain's pagan kings, was unexpectedly defeated and slain by Osiwu's army at the Battle of the Winwaed  Penda, King of Mercia and Wessex 
29 15 Nov 655  Cock Beck, Pendas Fields, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England   Oswiu unexpectedly defeats and slays Penda (who had earlier slew his brother Oswald) at the Battle of the Winwaed.

He established himself as King of Mercia, setting up his son-in-law, Penda's son Peada as a subject king 
Oswiu of Northumbria, King of Bernicia 
30 664  Whitby Abbey, Whitby, North Yorkshire, England   The Synod of Whitby was called to settle the Easter controversy, whether Easter should be observed according to Celtic or Roman Christian tradition. The matter was settled by King Oswiu who stated that Easter and monastic tonsure (monks hair cuts) would be observed according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practiced by Iona (Inner, Hebrides, Scotland where Celtic monks from Ireland and 'Skellig Michael' in the Atlantic off County Kerry, Ireland had migrated). Many Minsters were built following the agreements reached at Whitby.

In attendance at Whitby Abbey was an Anglo-Saxon monk, Cuthbert, of Northumbrian origin. His old abbot, Eata, called on Cuthbert who embraced the Roman customs to introduce them at Lindisfarne. It was an ungrateful task, but Cuthbert disarmed opposition with a loving and patient nature. In 676 Cuthbert adopted a solitary life and retired to a cave, but in 684, Cuthbert was elected and persuaded to take up the bishopric of Lindisfarne. In 686 Cuthbert returned to his cell on Inner Farne Island, Bamburgh, Northumberland, where he died in 687. St. Cuthbert was buried at Lindisfarne.

The Lindisfarne Gospels, illuminated Latin manuscripts of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, presumed to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698, died in 721 are believed produced in honour of St. Cuthbert. 
Oswiu of Northumbria, King of Bernicia 
31 673  Ely Cathedral, Ely, Cambridgeshire, England   Plaque commemorating the founding of the first Christian building on the site now occupied by Ely Cathedral  Æthelthryth (Etheldredaor Audrey) 
32 674  Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey, Sunderland, County Durham, England   In 674 Abbot Benedict Biscop (b. abt 628 d. 690) received a land grant from King Ecgfrith for the purpose of erecting a monastery at Wearmouth. which took 8 years to build. Soon after its completion King Ecgfrith granted Biscop another segment of land for the construction of a second monastery, Jarrow, with the intention that the two should be run as one, the double monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow. Upon the completion of the Jarrow Monastery, Ceolfrid (b. abt 642 d. 716) became Abbot. In 692 Ceolfrid commissioned three copies of the bible one of which he attempted to personally deliver to the Pope in Rome but died on route. That bible, the Codex Amiatinus is the earliest surviving manuscript of the complete surviving Bible in the Latin Vulgate version and is held at the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Tuscany, Italy. St. Bede he Venerable (b. 672/3 d. 26 May 735) came into St. Ceolfrid's care at the age of seven was most likely involved in the compilation of these bibles.  Ecgfrith, King of Northumbria 
33 2 Oct 684  Wessex, England   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky   Ethelburh, Queen of the West Saxons 
34 08 Jun 793  Lindisfarne (Holy Island), Northumberland, England   Sea-robbers, or 'Wicingas' as they came to be known began raiding Britain from across the sea. The Viking Age began dramatically in England on 8 Jun 793 when 'Northmen' destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne, a center of learning famous across the continent. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown or carried away as slaves along with church treasures. The devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal Courts of Europe. 'Never before has such an atrocity been seen' declared the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York.

The adjective 'Norse' (Norsemen) entered the English language in 1598 from the Dutch word 'noors', the adjective form of 'Norwegian'. The Norse word Vik meant Inlet, hence the people of the fjords. 
Ragnar Sigurdsson Lodbrok, Legendary King of Denmark 
35 28 Feb 837  Mercia, England   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Eadburh of Mercia 
36 867  York, North Yorkshire, England   In 867 Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the Danelaw, after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht, as a puppet king. Despite the pillaging of the kingdom, Viking rule brought lucrative trade to Northumbria, especially at their capital Jórvík, (York).

Danes who settled in England's eastern lands tended to wear eye-liner, shave the back of their heads and even bathe every Saturday. 
Ivar'the Boneless' Ragnarsson 
37 867  York, North Yorkshire, England   Conquered Northumbria with his brother Ivar the Boneless  Hvitserk (Halfdan) Ragnarsson 
38 8 Jan 871  Ashdown, Berkshire, England   The Battle of Ashdown, (possibly the part now in Oxfordshire), took place on 8 Jan 871. Alfred the Great, then a prince of only 21, led the army of his brother, King Æthelred of Wessex, in a victorious battle against the invading Danes.  Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
39 23 Apr 871  Winchester, Hampshire, England   Alfred becomes king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and the first King of the West Saxons to style himself 'King of the English' and defends the English language and laws against Viking invasions. Alfred's reign signifies the final convergence over a progressive period of time of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Kingdoms of Wessex, Anglia, Mercia (including Lindsey and Axholme), Nothumbria (including Bernicia and Deira), Kent, Sussex and Essex since 500 A.D.  Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
40 Jan 878  Chippenham, Wiltshire, England   King Alfred has to flee into a marsh to avoid Viking raids. Safely emerging from the marshes he planned to secure his kingdom from future invaders.  Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
41 May 878  Edington, Wiltshire, England   At the Battle of Edington an army of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great defeated the Great Heathen Army led by Guthrum on a date between 6 and 12 May AD 878. Sources locate the battle at "Ethandun" or "Ethandune", and consensus identifies its location with the present-day Edington, Wiltshire. It was known as the Battle of Ethandun, a name which continues to be used.

The battle soon resulted in the Treaty of Wedmore later the same year. 
Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
42 Abt 880  Wessex, England   In the late 9th century, King Alfred 'the Great' writes a preface to and translates Pope Gregory I's 'Regula Pastoralis' (Pastoral Care) into Old English as part of a project to improve education in Anglo-Saxon England. Written abt. 590 the original manuscripts (in Latin) were brought to England by St. Augustine in 597. Alfred intended every bishop in his kingdom to have a copy for the benefit of their less-educated clergy. In his Preface Alfred writes 'Angelcynn' (England), a name to unite his people.  Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
43 Abt 881  Wessex, England   The Burghal Hidage is an Anglo-Saxon document providing a list of Wessex's fortified burhs. It offers an unusually detailed picture of the network of burhs (fortified towns or defended site) that Alfred the Great designed to defend his kingdom from the predations of Viking invaders. As well as being fortfied the towns were endowed with 'marke places' for the generation of taxes for Alfred's war chest.

Alfredian policy of town plans for Wallingford, Wareham and Winchester, shows 'that they were laid out in the same scheme' (Wormald), supporting the proposition that these newly established burhs were planned as centres of habitation and trade as well as a place of safety in moments of immediate danger. Thereafter, the English population and its wealth were drawn into such towns where it was not only safer from Viking soldiers, but also taxable by the King. 
Alfred (Ælfred)'the Great', King of Wessex and England 
44 18 Jul 912  Wessex, England   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky   Adiva, Princess of England 
45 923  Wessex, England   Louis IV of was only 2 years old when his father was deposed by nobles, who set up Robert I in his place. When he was 3 years old, Robert died and was replaced by Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy. Rudolph's ally, a Carolingian himself, Count Herbert II of Vermandois, took Louis father Charles III 'the Simple' captive by treachery so his mother took him 'over the sea' to the safety in England, hence his nickname.  Louis IV'd'Outremeror Transmarinus (Overseas)', King of the West Franks 
46 932  Abbey Church of St. Mary & St. Peter, Exeter, Devon, England   Athelstan, King of England founds the Abbey church of St Mary and St Peter  Athelstan, King of England 
47 936  Exeter, Devon, England   Hugh 'the Great', Duke of Lower Burgundy, father of Hugh Capet a future king of the West Franks, sent messengers to ask for the hand of one of Athelstan's sisters for him to marry. As a dowry Hugh 'the Great' dispatched a rich collection of relics, which included the most valuable of all, the very spear (or a replica?) that had pierced the side of Christ, once owned by Charlemagne and wielded in wars against the Saracens. A weapon of self evident power.

Athelstan sets about refurbishing the frontier town of Exeter, strengthening it from attacks from Celtic Cornishmen, and enshrines the 'Holy Lance' in its Abbey church of St. Mary and St. Peter. 
Athelstan, King of England 
48 937  Bracken Wood, Wirral, Cheshire, England   The titanic Battle of Brunanburh was a long celebrated and greatest victory achieved by an English army led by Athelstan, King of England, and his brother, Edmund, over armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, Norse King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Alba, and Owen I, King of Strathclyde supported by Celtic mercenaries from Ireland, Wales and Cornwall. Athelstan claimed on his coins and charters 'King of all Britain'.  Athelstan, King of England 
49 973  Bath Abbey, Bath, Somerset, England   Edgar 'the Peaceable', King of England is crowned at Bath, some 14 years after gaining the throne, in an imperious ceremony, emulating that of his Holy Roman Emperor uncle (by marriage) Otto I crowned 962 in the Eternal city of Rome, and to celebrate the culmination of his reign. He also summoned Celtic princes to row him down river, an impressive sight but no more than show as the rule of 'Britain' had dissipated.

Edgar had sworn justice and order as his coronation oath, he delivered them with an iron fist. 'Peaceable' was probably not how his subjects experienced his rule. One ambitious act he did achieve in 973 was to issue a 'single currency' for a 'single people'. Foreign, obsolete or coins lacking the required silver purity were declared illegal tender. Regularly the silver coins of his kingdom were recalled for re-stamping, for which of course Edgar would take a cut on reissue, a license to 'imprint' money. The penalty for forgery was raised from mutilation to death.

Estates were also quantified and audited for tax. There was nothing comparable to Edgar's monetary efficiency in western christendom. He might not have been 'Caesar' but he had a solid treasury. 
Edgar'the Peaceable', King of England 
50 980  St. Cleer, Cornwall, England   England experienced a period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw in the mid-10th century by King Edgar, Ethelred's father. When Ethelred was under 14 years, small companies of Danish adventurers carried out a coastal raids in Hampshire, Thanet, and Cheshire in 980. Devon and Cornwall were attacked in 981 and Dorset in 982. 6 years passed then in 988 there was another coastal to the south-west. Although there was no lasting effect on England their importance is that they led England for the first time into diplomatic contact with the Dane's cousins in Normandy  Ethelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of England 

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