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Report: Timeline for France

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 Aug 353  La Bâtie-Montsaléon, Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France   The Battle of Mons Seleucus was fought between the forces of the legitimate Roman Emperor Constantius II and the forces of the usurper Magnentius. Constantius' forces were victorious, and Magnentius later committed suicide.  Magnentius'the Usurper' 
2 507  Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France   The Visigoths rule in Gaul was cut short in 507 by Clovis I leader of a confederation of Germanic Tribes, calling themselves The Franks, at the Battle of Vouillé. Here in the northern marches of the Visigoths territory, at a place near Poitiers in the spring of 507, Alaric II, the conqueror of Spain, an Arian, was killed by Clovis I.

Arianism was the theological teaching of Arius (abt 250 to 336) a Christian priest, ruled a heretic at the First Council of Nicea in 325, exonerated in 335 at the First Synod of Tyre and then pronounced a heretic again after his death at the First Council of Constantinople of 381.

Having been baptised, not submissively but conveniently to attain the backing of an intimidatingly all poerful God. As a symbol of his new christian status, Clovis would sport a 'salvation-giving war helmet'

Clovis I was ceremoniously made a (suffect) Consul of Rome by the 'Basileus', the ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I 
Clovis I'the Great', Merovingian King of the Franks 
3 612  Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France   By the 7th century the influence of Rome as a power in the West had faded into oblivion, its taxes and bureaucracies had all collapsed. Only the Christian Church in the West, which had not followed its eastern counterpart insisting on Christendom being synonymous with Roman rule, had endured in the power vacuum amongst barbarians.

Many Church districts under the jurisdiction of a Bishop, the Diocese or Bishopric date back to the times of Caesar. Metz was a Bishopric by 535, possibly earlier and in 612 Arnulf (later Saint Arnulf) was made its Bishop.

After the death of Clovis I in 511, his four sons partitioned the Frankish kingdom amongst themselves. Theuderic I receiving the lands that were to become Austrasia.

Arnulf gave distinguished service to the Austrasian court under Theudebert II but in In 613 Arnulf joined politics with Pepin of Landen and led the opposition of Frankish nobles against Queen Brunhilda. The revolt led to her overthrow, torture, and eventual execution and the subsequent reunification of Frankish lands under Clotaire II. Clotaire later made his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia and he ruled with the help of his advisors Arnulf and Pepin of Landen, then the Mayor of the Palace (a high noble office, latin: maior domus 'superior of the house'). View these relationships here

Not satisfied with his position, as bishop Arnulf was involved in the murder of Chrodoald in 624, an important leader of the Frankish Agilolfings family and a protégé of Dagobert.He retired around 628 to a hermitage at a mountain site in the Vosges, to realize his lifelong resolution to become a monk and a hermit. 
St. Arnulf (Arnoul ,Arnoldus) de Herstal, Bishop of Metz 
4 10 Oct 732  Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France   In 732, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi's troops raided the Duchy of Vasconia in the western Pyrenees and advanced to ransack Bordeaux. Odo the Great, Duke of Aquitaine, engaged them but was defeated near Bordeaux by the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, 'Moors' as they came to be known. Following the defeat, Odo ran north to warn his old adversary Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palaces of Neustria and Austrasia, of the impending threat and to appeal for assistance in fighting the Moor advance, which he received in exchange for accepting formal Frankish overlordship.

The first decisive Christian victory over the Moors of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, or Muslims 'those who submit' as they called themselves, was the Battle of Tours, fought by Charles Martel's men in the proximity of Poitiers. The Battle of Tours pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Austrasian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel against an army of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate Moors led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-general of al-Andalus. It was one of the world's pivotal moments. Professor of religion Huston Smith says in The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions: "But for their defeat by Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours in 733 [sic], the entire Western world might today be Muslim." 
Charles'the Hammer' Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia 
5 10 Oct 732  Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, France   The Battle of Tours, was won by Charles 'the Hammer' Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia's men in the proximity of Poitiers against Moors led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-general of al-Andalus appointed by Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik  Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph of Damascus 
6 748  L'abbaye de Gorze, Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France   Chrodegang of Metz founds Gorze Abbey, Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France  Chrodegang, Archbishop of Metz 
7 751  France   Pepin 'the Short' sent letters to Pope Zachary seeking the Church's blessing for a coup by asking 'whether the title of king belonged to the one who exercised the power or the one with the royal lineage'. The pope responded that the real power should have the royal title.

In 751, Childeric was dethroned and 'tonsured' (cutting the hair) on the orders of Zachary's successor Stephen II, according to Einhard, 'because he was not useful'. Long hair was the symbol of Childeric's dynasty and thus royal rights and mystical power, cutting it, divested him of all royal prerogatives.

In 752, Childeric and his son Theuderic are placed in the monastery of Saint-Bertin or Childeric in Saint-Omer and Theuderic in Saint-Wandrille. Childeric dies within 4 years.

Under the Carolingians, Childeric received bad press, being called a rex falsus, false king, despite the fact that it was Pepin who raised him to his throne. 
Childeric III, Last Merovingian King of the Franks 
8 754  Basilique Saint Denis, Paris, Île-de-France, France   Having dethroned Childeric III, Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris (via a pilgrimage to St. Maurice's Abbey, Saint-Maurice-en-Valais, Switzerland) to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin's first major act was to go to war against the Germanic warrior tribes of the Lombard king Aistulf, who had invaded Northern Italy and captured Ravenna itself and even threatened Rome, claiming a capitation tax. In 757 Pepin defeats the Lombards and presents the keys of Rome and Northern Italian States (the Papal States) to the Pope (although Pepin's son Charlemagne would repeal this gift in 774) 
Pepin III'the Short' FRANCE, Carolingian King of the Franks 
9 896  Fraxinet Fortress, La Garde-Freinet, Saint-Tropez, Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France   Throughout his reign, Louis the Blind King of Provence had to deal with Muslim Moors, invaders who had landed and established a base at Fraxinet in 889.  Louis III'l'Aveugle (the Blind)', Holy Roman Emperor, King of Provence and Italy 
10 901  Provence, France   Anna, illegitimate daughter of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI, was the first recorded 'porphyrogennetos' (born in the purple) to have an arranged marriage to a foreign noble. Previously Byzantine Emperors would not release imperial brides 'born in the purple', imperial regalia or impeial secrets such as 'Greek fire' to foreign powers.   Anna, Byzantine Princess (Porphyrogeneta) 
11 11 Sep 910  L'abbaye de Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France   Old, childless and probably with murder on his conscience and wishing to be cleansed of his sinful life, William I 'the Pious', Duke of Aquitaine gifts land to found the Abbey of Cluny.

In 100 years time, the Abbey of Cluny's only real rival as the pre-eminent monastery in France was Fleury Abbey, Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, Loiret, France, founded in about 640. 
William I'the Pious', Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Auvergne 
12 911  Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, Val-d'Oise, Île-de-France, France   In the land of the Franks, the 'Northmen' pirate raids had begun at the end of the eighth century in the time of Charlemagne. They had sailed up the river Loir to Orléans in 856 and up the river Seine to lay siege to Paris in 886. By 900 Rouen at the mouth of the river Seine was a wasteland 'Invia', its harbour constantly occupied by the raiders from Scandinavia. Rouen's archbishop clung on to his christian outpost in a the land of the 'Northmen' which became known as 'Normanni', Normandy.

In 911 the Northmen led by Rollo Rognvaldsson sailed from his caput (headquarters) at Rouen, down the river Seine, past Paris and as far south at Chartres. Here they were confronted and defeated by Robert I, a future King of the West Franks. But not completely. Charles 'the Simple' King of the West Franks' ambassadors proposed a compromise whereby Rollo would be recognised as the 'fief' overlord of Rouen and the surrounding lower Seine area (today's upper Normandy) if he accepted a christian baptism by its archbishop. Rollo agreed to the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte and was baptised in 912 renamed Robert. Few expected a peace to last and rumours continued to swirl. 
Rollo (Hrolf Ganger'the Walker') Rognvaldsson, Count of Rouen 
13 Bef 942  Jumièges Abbey, Jumièges, Seine-Maritime, France   A Benedictine monastery founded in 654 by Saint Philibert, pillaged and burnt to the ground by the Normans in the 9th century. It was rebuilt on a grander scale by Guillaume Longue-Épée, Count of Rouen. A new church was consecrated in 1067 in the presence of William the Conqueror.  William I(Guillaume)'Longue-Épée (Longsword)', Count of Rouen 
14 Abt 949  Laon, Aisne, Picardie, France   Squadrons of Hungarian (Magyar) horsemen had been invading the kingdom of the Franks since 899 and in the late 940's Laon, Fance had been captured and plundered and Louis IV briefly held prisoner. His saxon wife Gerberga sought advice from the celebrated scholar Adso, Abbot of Montier-en-Der. In his reply, he didn't succumb to a precise date for the 'end of days' but he did feel able to confirm it was imminent.  Louis IV'd'Outremeror Transmarinus (Overseas)', King of the West Franks 
15 988  Laon, Aisne, Picardie, France   Overlooked by his peers, in 988 Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine, pressed his claim to the throne by going to war with Hugh Capet taking Rheims and Laon. However, on Maundy Thursday 26 Mar 991 he was captured, through the perfidy of Adalberon, Bishop of Laon, and with his young second son Louis imprisoned by Hugh in Orléans, where he died a short while later.  Charles, Prince of France, Duke of Lower Lorraine 
16 05 Sep 989  France   A comet (later called Halley's) blazes over the night skies of Christendom, next to appear again in 1066. The kingdoms of the West Franks was unruly, the poor, merchants and even nobility were preyed on by predatory gangs of mail-clad thugs, Cnichts (Knights). Omnia permixta sunt, 'chaos reigns everywhere'.  Hugh Capet, First Capetian King of the West Franks 
17 990  Anjou, Maine-et-Loire, France   Fulk the Black embraced innovation and built many fortifications throughout Anjou, building one of the first stone castles, the Donjon (Keep) at Langeais in 990. The practise of 'incastellamento' building had been reserved for royalty but was spreading northward from Italy. Ideal locations were a rock, spur or hill or if necessary artificial mounds, known as 'mottes'. Only rudimentary wooden battlements were needed to establish its authority, from which it could be upgraded with stone if desired. Not designed to protect rather to intimidate the surrounding population. Each castle was served by a captain, the Castellan and gangs of mail-clad thugs, Cnichts (Knights) were employed to garrison them. These 'vasa' or vassals, a Gaul word which once referred to the lowest of the low, were submissive to their lord and master. The populous outside these strongholds were dominated and penned in 'villages', their rights to roam or hunt for food removed, requiring them to work the land to live. Farming provided rich rewards for the 'potentes' the powerful over the 'pauperes' the powerless. If a 'francus' was unlucky with his harvests and so poor that he had to sell his plot of land, he became a 'serf' or slave.  Foulques (Fulk) III'Nerra (the Black)' of, Count of Anjou (Angevin) 
18 991  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France   The presence of Viking ships, English slaves and treasure in Norman markets had not gone unnoticed across the Channel. Pope John XV was called to intervene and remind Richard I, Count of Rouen of his christian obligations and so a treaty was ratified in Rouen in 991. The Vikings continued precisely as before.  Ethelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of EnglandEthelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of England 
19 991  Conquereuil, Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, Pays de la Loire, France   The Battle of Conquereuil was fought between the Bretons led by the Duke of Brittany, Conan I of Rennes and the Angevins led by the Duke of Anjou, Fulk the Black. The Bretons defended, and Conan carefully prepared the battlefield, digging pits and ditches which were flooded by the water of nearby swamps and then hidden by covering them lightly with sod, and behind this prepared earthworks which had their flanks secured by the swamps.

The Angevins attacked, and Breton troops lured the Angevin knights into the flooded pits by feigning flight. The Bretons then counterattacked and drove the Angevins back in disarray. During a lull in the battle, during which the Bretons apparently prematurely considered the battle won, Fulk reorganized his army, attacked the Bretons again, and routed them, killing Conan in the process and making his name in the process. 
Foulques (Fulk) III'Nerra (the Black)' of, Count of Anjou (Angevin) 
20 994  L'abbaye de Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France   The Abbey of Cluny was guided by an orderly succession of able and educated Abbots drawn from the highest aristocratic circles, three of whom were canonized: St. Odo of Cluny, its second Abbot (died 942), St. Odilo, the fifth Abbot (died 1049) and St. Hugh of Cluny, the sixth Abbot (died 1109).

Odo required his brethren to recite 138 psalms per day, more than three time the norm of other monasteries.

Odilo was elected Abbot in 994. Under its original charter granted to it by William I, Duke of Aquitaine, the Abbey had been declared 'free from the rule of any king, bishop, count, or relative of its founder'. Amidst violence and chaos in the kingdom it was a beacon of sanctity. 
Hugh Capet, First Capetian King of the West Franks 
21 1000  Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France   Fulk's wife Elizabeth seized his citadel having been discovered having an affair. Fulk stormed the citadel and much of Angers was wasted. Elizabeth was burned at the stake  Foulques (Fulk) III'Nerra (the Black)' of, Count of Anjou (Angevin) 
22 1002  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France   Ethelred now sufficiently intimidating persuades Richard I, Count of Rouen to stick to a new second treaty. In the following Spring Richard's sister Emma arrives in Wessex as Queen consort of England  Ethelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of EnglandEthelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of England 
23 Dec 1013  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France   In 1013 English resistance collapses and Sweyn 'Forkbeard' then king of Denmark and Norway now adds the crown of England to his titles. Ethelred already boxed in at London is forced into exile with his Norman brother-in-law. Sweyn lived for only five weeks after his victory. In 1014 the Danish army in England proclaimed Canute the Great, King of England, but he was forced out of England that year, to launch a new invasion in 1015  Ethelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of EnglandEthelred (Æthelred) II'the Unready', King of England 
24 Dec 1013  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France   Exiled to Normandy with his father and brother Alfred  St. Edward'the Confessor', Last Cerdicingas King of EnglandSt. Edward'the Confessor', Last Cerdicingas King of England 
25 Dec 1013  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France   Exiled to Normandy with his father and brother Edward  Alfred, Prince of England 
26 1016  Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France   In Ravenna, Italy, the 'living Saint' Romuald declares the Abbey of Cluny, the 'flower' of monasteries.

Abbot Odilo of Cluny begins inviting local Castellans to swear the oath of peace together as equals. As early as 972 the clergy had sought law, order and peace from the Castellans. A trend for Peace Councils had spread to Aquitaine, France by 989 supported by William V 'the Great', Duke of Aquitaine which also helped shore up his crumbling authority. Over the next 10 years a dozen more would be staged across southern France, not in Churches but in open fields.

In 1016 outside Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, knights on horseback had gathered to swear 'God's peace'. They had been summoned by the Bishop Hugh of Châlons, but the inspiration had been Abbot Odilo of Cluny. These 'Knights of Christ' took sacred oaths of 'Knighthood' sworn on holy relics to restore the rule of law and their redemption from anarchy would be paid for by the last vestiges of peasant freedom. However a Knight was by its very nature to exist in a state of sin.

Robert II Capet visited Verdun-sur-le-Doubs in the summer of 1016 and over the coming years showed his approval by even hosting his own councils for 'The Peace of God', even though he had been excommunicated by the Pope for marrying his cousin. 
Robert II'the Pious'or'the Wise' Capet, King of the West Franks 
27 Abt 1026  L'abbaye de Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France   The monk Rodulfus (Rudolf, Ralph) Glaber commences his five books on French history covering the period 900 to 1044 and nations as far as Scotland and Southern Italy.  Robert II'the Pious'or'the Wise' Capet, King of the West Franks 
28 03 Aug 1029  Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges, Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France   St. Martial had brought the Gospel to Aquitaine, France in the 3rd century and his tomb was in the crypt of the monastery of Saint-Martial at Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France. Adémar de Chabannes (988-1034) was a monk and historian educated at Saint-Martial monastery who dreamed in 1010 a vision of 'Christ nailed and bloody upon the Cross'. Receiving news of the desecration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem in the previous year, the people of Aquitaine were shocked and fearful. They suspected Jews of Limoges to be implicated and sought their redemption by conversion to christianity. Adémar wrote that the Jews of Limoges 'preferred slitting their own throats to avoid baptism'. What followed was a sudden ethnic cleanse of Jews from Limoges, even though a papal mandate two years earlier threatened excommunication for such acts. Not long after the violence was regarded as an aberration by both sides. Meanwhile Adémar amended his historical record by suggesting that the slaughter of the Jews happened prior to the desecration of the Holy Sepulchre.

Then in 1022 twelve clerics were burnt at the stake in Orléans, Loiret, Centre, France for heresey and in St. Jean-d'Angely the head of John the Baptist had been 'miraculously discovered'. As the millennium of Christ's resurrection approached, pilgrimages to view 'Holy Relics' increased in popularity, and so too did monasteries polish up relics to attract souls to save. The monks of Saint-Martial monastery announced in 1028 that their founding Saint had in fact been one of Christ's original apostles and the nephew of St. Peter. Adémar was charged to provide the proof for the monks and spent eight months preparing his case. On 03 Aug 1029 the official blessing of St. Martial's relics was to take place in the Cathedral of Limoges. As the service was about to start, a scholar Benedict of Lombardy denounced Adémar's claims of St. Martial as forgery. The people of Limoges turned on Adémar and he was ejected, his reputation in ruins. Over the next three years Adémar persisted in arguing his case for St. Martial and in 1032 after first depositing his 'evidence' in the library of St. Martial at Limoges, pilgrimaged to Jerusalem to await Christ's return, which he never saw and died there in 1034. Meanwhile his evidence was poured over in St. Martial library by scholars who in a few decades vindicated Adémar and his 'incorrect' deductions. 
William V(Guillaume)'le Grand (the Great)', Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Poitou 
29 Abt 1041  Hauteville-sur-Mer, Manche, Basse-Normandie, France   With Normandy becoming increasingly populated, and most land already secured by castellans, Tancred of Hauteville probably lived to see one or more of his sons leave to make their fortunes and continue his dynasty abroad, in Italy where hired hands were sought to eject Saracen and Byzantinines.  Tancred of Hauteville 
30 1047  Caën, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France   William I Duke of Normandy was coming of age and after an in-depth warrior's education goes into battle for the first time against one of his cousins and is victorious. Later that year he presides over a a Council at Caen, where he proclaims the Peace of God to the people of his Duchy and war to his neighbours and enemies.  William I'the Conqueror', King of England, Duke of NormandyWilliam I'the Conqueror', King of England, Duke of Normandy 
31 1049  Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France   In the winter of 1048 Gregory VI died and his faithful chaplain Hildebrand met Bruno of Toul (Egisheim-Dagsburg), Henry III's nominee for next pope, and a distant relation as Bruno's father, Count Hugo, was a relative of Emperor Conrad II. Hildebrand was won over by Bruno and accompanied him to Rome where Bruno adopted the name Pope Leo IX. Later that year Leo IX travelled to Reims, France, the fist Pope to visit 'France' in 171 years. Summoning his Bishops to Reims many stayed away, and were excommunicated, those who attended were asked to swear on the bones of Reims' patron Saint that they had not paid for their positions, a sin of 'simony'. The only Bishop who could do so was Abbot Hugh of Semur, the successor to Abbot Odilo of Cluny who had died earlier that year. Hugh declared 'the flesh was willing ... but mind and reason resolved'.  Henry III(Heinrich)'the Black'or'the Pious' Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of GermanyHenry III(Heinrich)'the Black'or'the Pious' Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
32 1064  Normandie, France   Harold Godewinson visits his king's cousin, William I, Duke of Normany and rides with him on a raid into Brittany, France, receiving a gift of armour in return. But Harold's mission was to closely study the Duke's techniques should he need to refer to them for future battles. Harold may have left William with the impression that he could rely upon his future support, because, as it would turn out William would become extremely bitter in two years time when Harold is anointed king of England  Harold II Godwineson, King of England, Earl of WessexHarold II Godwineson, King of England, Earl of Wessex 
33 1065  Flanders, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France   Tostig Godwineson, Earl of Northumbria became widely hated in the North of England, such that the nobles had raised an army and marched to York and then on to Wessex. Edward 'the Confessor' faced pressure to depose Tostig from his Earldom and replace him with a young noble called Morcar of Northumbria. Not even Tostig's brother Harold would come to his defence. Mortified with resentment, Tostig left for exile in Flanders, Brabant, Belgium bearing ill feeling towards his brother and knowing King Edward had recently suffered a number of strokes and still had no heir.  Tostig Godwineson, Earl of Northumbria 
34 27 Sep 1066  Normandie, France   As the winds that propelled Harald 'Hardrada' to England earlier that month die down, William I, Duke of Normandy gives the order for his invasion fleet to set sail.  William I'the Conqueror', King of England, Duke of NormandyWilliam I'the Conqueror', King of England, Duke of Normandy 
35 Oct 1096  Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrénées, France   Raymond IV Count of Toulouse was deeply religious, and wished to die in the Holy Land. When Pope Urban II sanctioned the First Crusade, Raymond was one of the first 'to take up the cross'. The oldest and the richest of the crusaders, Raymond left Toulouse at the end of Oct 1096, with a large company that included his wife Elvira, his infant son (who would die on the journey) and Adhemar, Bishop of Le Puy (Le Puy-en-Velay, Occitan, France), the papal legate. Also in the company was Raymond of Aguilers a chronicler of the First Crusade, who expected to write the next chapter of the New Testament.  Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, Count of Saint-Gilles 
36 1135  Le Neubourg, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France   After the death of Henry I, the Barons gathered at Le Neubourg to declare their allegiance to Theobald, however his younger brother Stephen crossed the channel to Winchester where with the help of his brother Henry was crowned at Westminster.   Theobald (Thibaut) IV'the Great' of Blois, Count of Blois and of Chartres, Count II of Champagne 
37 18 Apr 1145  France   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Marie Capet, Princess of the West Franks, Countess of Champagne 
38 1166  Aquitaine, France   King Dermot MacMorough of Leinster, was driven from his land and followed Henry II to Aquitaine, seeking an audience. He asked the English king to help him reassert control; Henry agreed and made footmen, knights and nobles available for the cause. The most prominent of these was a Welsh Norman, Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed "Strongbow". Dermot offered Earl Richard his daughter Aoife in marriage and made him heir to the kingdom.  Dermot MacMorough, King of Leinster 
39 01 Nov 1179  Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Reims, Reims, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France   In declining health, Louis VII of France commanded Archbishop William Whitehands to anoint Philippe II Auguste as co-King of France. Philippe was William's nephew  Cardinal Guillaumeaux BlanchesMains (William Whitehands) de Champagne 
40 28 Nov 1199  Château d'Ecry-sur-Aisne, Aisne, Picardie, France   Pope Innocent III had called for a Fourth Crusade in 1198. At first there was little enthusiasm, but on 28 Nov 1199 various nobles of France, including Geoffrey of Villehardouin (knight and historian) gathered at Count Theobald III's castle for a tournament where they 'took the cross' and elected Theobald as their leader. But Theobald died the following year and, helped by Geoffrey of Villehardouin, was replaced by Boniface I of Montferrat Theobald III, Count of Champagne 
41 Jun 1201  Soissons, Aisne, Picardie, France   When the original leader of the Fourth Crusade, Theobald III, Count of Champagne, died in 1201, Boniface was chosen as its new leader.  Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat 
42 Jun 1204  Normandie, France   The city of Rouen, John's great great grandfather William the Conqueror's capital in Normandy, France, falls to Philippe II King of France who annexes Normandy and also take parts of Anjou and Poitou. According to Roger of Wendover, the defence of King John's lands on the continent came second to "enjoying all the pleasures of life" including his teenage bride as he had plenty of money to retake all that had been lost. However the loss of the French territories, especially Normandy, greatly reduced the state income, and a huge tax was needed to raise an army to reclaim the territories.  John'Lackland (Sans Terre)' Plantagenet, King of England, Deposed Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandJohn'Lackland (Sans Terre)' Plantagenet, King of England, Deposed Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
43 Jun 1204  Normandie, France   During the reign of England's King John, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under Philip II of France, ending its Norman rule.  Philippe IIAuguste Capet, King of the West Franks 
44 28 Sep 1222  France   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky. Some claim that Temujin, who came to be known as Genghis Khan "The Emperor of All Men" b. abt 1162 d. 1227 founder and Khagan of the Mongol Empire) was inspired to turn his conquests toward Europe by the 1222 apparition.  St. Louis IX Capet, King of France 
45 26 Apr 1248  La Sainte-Chapelle, Île de la Cité, Paris, Île-de-France, France   The Holy Chapel (the only surviving building of the Capetian royal palace) was commissioned by King Louis IX of France to house his collection of Passion Relics, including the Holy Crown of Thorns - one of the most important relics in medieval Christendom. Begun some time after 1239 and consecrated on the 26 Apr 1248  St. Louis IX Capet, King of France 
46 18 Nov 1302  Château de Fontainebleau, Fontainebleau, Paris, Île-de-France, France   On 18 Nov 1302 Pope Boniface VIII issued one of the most important papal bulls of Catholic history: Unam sanctam. It declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church. Philippe IV King of France launched a strong anti-papal campaign against Boniface. He convened the first Estates General, representatives of the First Estate (clergy, about 0.5% of the population), Second Estate (the nobility, exempt from the corvée royale - forced labour on the roads - and from most other forms of taxation), and Third Estate (the bourgeoisie and commoners - later le Communes, the commons) to grant subsidies, to advise the Crown and to give aid and counsel. The Estates General continued until 1789 when France was in the grip of an unmanageable public debt, terrible inflation and food scarcity, prior to the Revolution.  Philippe IV'le Bel (the Fair)' Capet, King of France 
47 1 Feb 1328  Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, Île-de-France, France   Charles IV of France dies without a male heir. As Charles' nephew, Edward III of England was entitled to the French throne through a female line, forming the basis of his claim during the ensuing Hundred Years War of 1337-1453  Edward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandEdward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
48 1 Feb 1328  Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, Île-de-France, France   Charles IV's wife Jeanne d'Évreux was pregnant at the time of his death and since she might have given birth to a son, a regency was set up under Charles' cousin, the heir presumptive Philip of Valois. However Jeanne gave birth to a girl, Blanche, and Philip became King and in May was consecrated and crowned Philip VI.

Although the Salic law forbid inheritance by a woman, it did not forbid inheritance through a female line. Under this argument, Charles' nephew Edward III of England should have inherited the throne, and formed the basis of his claim during the ensuing Hundred Years War of 1337-1453. 
Charles IV 'the Fair' (Charles I of Navarre) Capet, Last Capetian King of France and of Navarre, Count of Champagne 
49 Jun 1337  Gascogne (Gascony), Aquitaine, France   Philip VI of France confiscates Edward III's Duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. English kings had ruled the wine growing western French province of Gascony for generations.  Edward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandEdward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
50 26 Jul 1346  Caën, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France   The Battle of Caen was a running battle through the streets of the Norman city. the English invaders sacked the city.

The English would pillage livestock to feed its army, killing and burning any remaining crops and food sources as they marched across France. This was not a new technique, William the Conqueror had applied the same tactic to encourage King Harold to engage in battle. The French had called it chevauchée ("promenade" or "horse charge", depending on context). 
Edward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of IrelandEdward III Plantagenet, King of England, Pretence King of France, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 


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