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Report: Timeline for Germany

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 434  Germany   Attila the Hun, was Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. Theodosius II paid him tribute to avoid conflict in the Eastern Roman Empire.  Theodosius II, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
2 20 May 760  Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky   Svatana de Saxe 
3 764  Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Hesse, Germany   Founded Lorsch Abbey together with his widowed mother Williswinda as a proprietary church and monastery on their estate, Laurissa. They entrusted its government to Chrodegang, Archbishop of Metz, son of Cancor's sister Landrada.

A proprietary church was built on private land by a feudal lord, over which he retained proprietary interests, especially the right (in English law 'advowson') of nominating ecclesiastic personnel 
4 13 Sep 813  Aachen (Aix la Chapelle), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   The only surviving of three sons, Louis 'the Pious' is crowned king of the Franks by his father Charlemagne, a pointed snub to the Pope, who was not even invited to the ceremony.  Louis'the Pious', Emperor of the West, King of Aquitaine 
5 919  Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany   On his deathbed Conrad I persuaded his brother, Margrave Eberhard of Franconia, to offer the crown to Henry 'the Fowler', Duke of Saxony, one of his principal opponents, since he considered Henry to be the only prince capable of holding the Kingdom together in the face of internal rivalries among the dukes and the continuous raids of the Hungarians (the Magyars). Eberhard and other Frankish nobles accepted Conrad's advice, and Henry was elected king, as Henry I at the Reichstag of 919 in Fritzlar. Henry refused to be anointed by a high church official, the only king of his time not to undergo the rite, insisting he did not wish to be king by the church's but by the people's acclaim.

Henry's name derived from his passion for setting duck traps, his patience would allow him to set traps for his enemies throughout his life. 
Henri I(Heinrich ,Henry)'l'Oiseleur (the Fowler)' Liudolfing, Emperor of Germany, Duke of Saxony 
6 933  River Unstrut, Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany   When Henry 'the Fowler' was prepared, he cancelled his annual tribute of gold to the Hungarians (Magyars), and instead sent them a 'tailless and crop-eared dog'

When the Hungarians (Magyars) resumed their raids, Henry led an army of all German tribes to victory at the Battle of Riade in 933 near the river Unstrut, stopping their advance into Germany. 
Henri I(Heinrich ,Henry)'l'Oiseleur (the Fowler)' Liudolfing, Emperor of Germany, Duke of Saxony 
7 935  Memleben, Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany   Near the end of his life, Henry 'the Fowler' met with Rudolph King of the West Franks, Duke of Burgundy not as an equal but as the dominant figure in Christendom. There was no one to dispute his right as a Saxon to rule as King of the Franks, founder of the Holy Roman Empire and the First Reich.

In 936 as Henry prepared to meet his maker, reversing a Frankish custom of dividing up his kingdom amongst his sons, he bequeathed its entirety to Otto, his eldest son. In the year he signed a truce with the Hungarians (Magyars), he also traded a part of Swabia, now Switzerland and Alsace, to Rudoph in exchange for a treasure 'infinitely precious', a spear of terrible power. The weapon had once belonged to Constantine I for whom it had won the Empire of the World. On the head of the spear were crosses fashioned out of nails, the spikes that had pierced the hands and feet of Christ 'joining the realms of the mortal to that of heaven'. So for Henry it had proved and was now bequeathed to Otto. 
Henri I(Heinrich ,Henry)'l'Oiseleur (the Fowler)' Liudolfing, Emperor of Germany, Duke of Saxony 
8 936  Aachen (Aix la Chapelle), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   Otto arranged for his coronation as first king of the Germans to be held in Charlemagne's former capital, Aachen, where he was anointed (unlike his father) by the archbishop of Mainz, primate of the German church

Otto had his disinherited and bitterest enemy, his brother Henry, imprisoned for the duration of the ceremony 
Otto I'the Great' Liudolfing, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, King of Italy, Duke of Saxony 
9 939  Andernach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   By 938 open revolt against Otto I broke out led by his brother Henry and Eberhard, the Frank brother of Conrad I who had been sidelined.

On the banks of the Rhine at Andernack in 939, Otto brought his enemies to a crushing defeat, and slaying Eberhard took his lands of Franconia.

During the campaign, Otto and his men were trapped and vastly outnumbered on the opposite side of the Rhine. Not phased, Otto ordered the Holy Lance given to him by his father, planted on the river bank, fell to his knees and flamboyantly prayed before it. His troops inspired duly pulled off a sterling victory.

Henry escaped the campaign with an arm that was almost severed, his heavy armour, his mark of rank, saved him from permanent disfigurement. 
Otto I'the Great' Liudolfing, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, King of Italy, Duke of Saxony 
10 10 Aug 955  Lechfeld Plain, Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany   Otto decisively defeats the Hungarian (Magyars) at the Battle of the Lech (of Lechfeld). He creates 'the Eastern Command' or Ostarrichi (Austria)  Otto I'the Great' Liudolfing, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, King of Italy, Duke of Saxony 
11 967  Magdeburg, Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany   At his English wife Editha's urging, Otto I founded the great monastery at Magdeburg in 937 and in 961 transferred to it the relics of the Captain of the Theban Legion, St. Maurice, and when it was not required on campaigns, the 'Holy Lance'. Pope John XIII declared Magdeburg, on the frontier of Eastern Christendom an archbishopric in 967  Otto I'the Great' Liudolfing, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, King of Italy, Duke of Saxony 
12 970  Der Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria (High Cathedral), Köln (Cologne), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   For the first time a cross is erected on a church of worship depicting Christ in the image of man dying on the cross. An image that shocked Christians then and for the next 50 years, and still causes controversy today.  Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor 
13 Sep 982  Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   Harald I 'Bluetooth' sends his warriors over his borders to scavenge pickings following Otto II's defeat at Cotrone, Calabria, Italy. The pagan Wends also assault Saxony. But it was Harald's son Sweyn 'Forkbeard' that secures the glory, leading to the eventual toppling of his father   Harald I'Blauzahn (Bluetooth)' Gormsson, King of Denmark and Norway 
14 984  Aachen (Aix la Chapelle), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   The child king of Germany, Otto III is abducted by his cousin Henry the Quarrelsome who on Easter Day lays claim to the throne.

Gerbert of Aurillac, a prolific scholar and teacher who had studied at Córdoba, wrote the the Princes and bishops of the Reich to support their true king. A few months later, Henry found his supporters had melted away, and surrenders his king.

Otto III's mother, Theophanu, returned from Rome to support her child on the throne. Although Theophanu died in 991 and Otto II was a minor, his position was secure. Gerbert was a friend of Adso, Abbot of Montier-en-Der who had offered advice to Louis IV's wife Gerberga on the 'end of days', which Gerbert was only too aware was now only 6 years away and Otto III with a Western and Eastern lineage could again unite a Roman Empire 
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor 
15 5 Sep 989  Swabia, Baden-Württemberg, Germany   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky   Gisela of Swabia 
16 Oct 1043  Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany   From the pulpit in Konstanz in Oct 1043 Henry III offered a general indulgence or pardon whereby he promised to forgive all injuries to himself and to forgo vengeance. He encouraged all his vassals to do likewise. Known as the 'Day of Indulgence' or 'Day of Pardon', Henry III duly went to war again, his second Hungarian campaign, in the following year. As a penance he offered a 'golden spear' won from a rival warlord, to St. Peter's Church, Rome.  Henry III(Heinrich)'the Black'or'the Pious' Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
17 1057  Swabia, Baden-Württemberg, Germany   In 1057 Rudolf had taken advantage of the 6 year old king Henry IV and his mother by kidnapping his sister Matilda. Rudolf demanded, and received, Matilda's hand in marriage, as well as the Duchy of Swabia and administration of Burgundy.  Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia 
18 1062  Kaiserpfalz (King's Palace), Kaiserswerth, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   The Swabian Archbishop of Cologne, Anno II (St.) sails down the Rhine and abducts the 12 year old king Henry IV. The Saxon Count Otto of Nordheim is a co-conspirator.  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
19 Mar 1065  Worms, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   At Easter 1065, Henry IV was ceremoniously declared of age and his first command was to dismiss the Archbishop of Cologne who had abducted him some three years earlier.  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
20 1068  Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   Henry IV, King of Germany had an impetuous character and infidelities, in 1068 he attempted to divorce his wife Bertha. A council at Mainz led by Papal legate Peter Damian (St.) born 1007 Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, a reformer and protégé of Hildebrand, persuades Henry to back down hinting that insistence would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry agreed and his wife returned to Court, but he was convinced that opposition was aimed at undermining power within the Holy Roman Empire, to benefit the church.

As an aside, earlier in 1060 Peter Damian had been delegated to restore calm in Milan, Lombard, Italy where the 'patarenes', the ragpickers as the increasingly poor were known finally revolted over centuries old traditions of clerical marriage and concubinage which allowed priests to partake in sex. The thought of a priest having pleasures of the flesh and then performing at a Holy Mass was enough to throw the Peter Damian into apoplexies and instructed the Archbishop of Milan and his churchmen to reform. 
Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
21 1073  Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   Saxon dynasty rule of Germany ended with the death of Henry II on 13 Jul 1024 and the Rhineland dynasty under Conrad II took charge. The Great Saxon Revolt was a civil war led by opportunistic German princes who elected as their figurehead Rudolf of Rheinfeld, Duke of Swabia and anti-king against the Holy Roman Empire ruled at the time by Rudolf's mother in law, the Dowager Empress Agnes of Aquitaine (of Poitou), mother of Henry IV who was a minor.  Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia 
22 1073  Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   Saxon German princes jockey for greater powers and initiate The Great Saxon Revolt, led by Count Otto of Nordheim, supported by Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia, Henry IV's 'one time' brother in law   Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
23 15 Mar 1077  Forchheim, Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany   Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia is declared anti-king by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
24 15 Mar 1077  Forchheim, Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany   At Forchheim, Upper Franconia, Germany on 15 Mar 1077, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia is declared anti-king by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes. On 25 May 1077 at Mainz, Rhineland, Germany Rudolf is crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I, but the people of the city revolt and he is forced to flee to Saxony, Germany.  Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia 
25 Jun 1080  Bavaria, Germany   Henry IV convoked a synod of German clergy in Bamberg and Brixen (Jun 1080) where 'the False Monk' (Gregory VII) was again stated to have been deposed and was replaced by the primate of Ravenna, Guibert, a distant relative of Matilda of Canossa, and known as the antipope (later Clement III).  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
26 Apr 1098  Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   The diet (assembly) of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany in Apr 1098, followed Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza where Henry IV's wife Eupraxia (Adelheid) and eldest son Conrad conspired to slander him. Henry IV deposes Conrad of his kingdom of Italy and designates his younger brother Henry (future Henry V) as successor, under an oath sworn that he would never follow his brother's example.  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
27 Dec 1104  Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   At the diet (assembly) at Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany in Dec 1104, Henry IV is forced to resign his crown and imprisoned in the castle of Böckelheim where he is obliged to swear that he had unjustly persecuted Gregory VII and to have illegally named Clement III. When these conditions became known in Germany, a vivid movement of dissension spread and in 1106 Henry IV escapes his captors and defeats his son's army near Visé, Walloon, Belgium, in Lorraine, on 2 Mar 1106. Henry died a few months later following 9 days of illness, aged 56.  Henry IV(Heinrich) Salian, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany 
28 1157/8  Munich (München), Bavaria, Germany   Heinrich V (Henry) 'the Lion', Duke of Saxony and Bavaria was the founder of Munich  Heinrich V(Henry)'the Lion', Duke of Saxony and Bavaria 
29 1159  Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany   Heinrich V (Henry) 'the Lion', Duke of Saxony and Bavaria was the founder of Lübeck from which developed 'The Hanseatic League' (the Hanse or Hansa), an economic alliance of trading cities and their guilds that established and maintained a trade monopoly along the coast of Northern Europe. The League streched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland, during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (13th to 17th centuries).  Heinrich V(Henry)'the Lion', Duke of Saxony and Bavaria 
30 27 Mar 1188  Der Hohe Domkirche zu Mainz (High Cathedral), Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany   European leaders attempted to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin during the Third Crusade (the Kings' Crusade) from 1189 to 1192. The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa responded immediately to the call. He took up the Cross at Mainz Cathedral on 27 Mar 1188 and was the first to set out for the Holy Land in May of 1189 with an army of about 100,000 men, including 20,000 knights (historians believe this is an exaggeration and that the true figure might be closer to 15,000 men, including 3,000 knights)  Frederick I(Friedrich)'Barbarossa' Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany and Italy 
31 31 Oct 1517  Wittenberg upon Elbe, Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Germany   A monk Martin Luther, born Hans Luder 10 Nov 1483 Eisleben, Germany part of the Holy Roman Empire, wrote to Albrecht, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, protesting at what he saw as a corrupt, wicked and useless practice of the church selling indulgences, certificates that cleansed sins and offered salvation to avoid time in purgatory (a Catholic concept adopted from Augustine of Hippo, where souls of those who die in a state of grace undergo a process of purification to expiate their sins). He enclosed in his letter a copy of his 'Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences' which came to be known as The 95 Theses. Hans Hillerbrand writes that Luther had no intention of confronting the church, rather a scholarly objection to church practices, and the writing tone is 'searching, rather than doctrinaire'. The same day, according to Philipp Melanchthon, writing in 1546 Luther nails a copy of the 95 Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.

Luther is called before the Diet of Worms in 1521. Alone against all of the church, believing himself to be a prophet of 'the end of days' and declaring the Pope to be the Antichrist, he refuses to submit to the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I and is declared a heretic, excommunicated and declared an outlaw of the state as a consequence.

Frederick III, Elector of Saxony had him discreetly abducted by masked horsemen and taken to Wartburg Castle, Eisenach, Thuringia, Germany. Here Luther transcribes the New Testament, which until this time was restricted to Latin readers, into German, the Lutheran Bible, published in Sep 1522 and selling 5,000 copies in two months. The result was 'The Reformation', christian doctrine was shattered into many radical factions. Christian civil war began between Catholicism and Protestantism. 
Charles V( Carlos I of Spain) Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria, House of Spanish Habsburg 
32 1524  Bad Frankenhausen, Thuringia, Germany   The Peasants' War (Deutscher Bauernkrieg, the German Peasants' War) was a popular revolt in 1524/5. It consisted of a series of economic as well as religious revolts by peasants, townsfolk and nobles. The conflict took place mostly in southern, western, and central Germany but also affected areas in neighbouring Switzerland and Austria. At its height in the spring and summer of 1525 it involved an estimated 300,000 peasants with 100,000 dead. It was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising before the French Revolution in 1789.

Bad Frankenhausen houses the world's largest painting (Peasants' War Panorama) depicting 3,000 individuals (Werner Tübke, 1989) 
Charles V( Carlos I of Spain) Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria, House of Spanish Habsburg 
33 15 May 1648  North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   Succeeding his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637, Ferdinand III Habsburg hoped to be able to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the Thirty Year's War dragged on for another 11 years, finally coming to an end with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a successful diplomat who had been made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Peace of Westphalia were two treaties, written in Latin, signed in Germany on 15 May 1648 in Osnabrück and 24 Oct 1648 in Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire (mostly Germany) and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The treaties initiating a new central Europe based on state sovereignty. The powers of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III in contravention of the Empire's constitution were stripped and returned to the rulers of the Imperial States of Spain, France, Sweden, the Netherlands and their respective allies. Their rulers were allowed to independently decide their dominions religious worship, from options of Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.

The majority of the Peace's terms can be attributed to the work of Cardinal Mazarin, the de facto leader of France at the time (King Louis XIV, being a child).

Representatives from England did not attend. England was always independent of the Holy Roman Empire, had its own Protestant Church under its Head of State King Charles I and was at that time in the throws of civil war. A civil war or English Revolution caused partly by Charles's marriage to a French Roman Catholic Princess, Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, the King of France Louis XIV's aunt. The marriage by proxy occurred in 1625, a few months after Charles came to the throne. The marriage raised real possibilities that an heir to the throne could be Catholic, a fearful prospect to Protestant England after 44 years of hard fought for stability and growth during the 'golden age' of Elizabeth I and the 22 year reign of Charles's father James I.

At the end of the Thirty Year's War, Northern Europe was predominantly Protestand with Southern Europe remaining predominantly Catholic. 
Ferdinand III Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria 
34 1682  Hanover, Hanover, Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Germany   When told of the plans for her future husband, Sophia Dorothea shouted "I will not marry the pig snout!" (a name her cousin Georg Louis was known by in Hanover).

In 1682, Sophia Dorothea married her cousin, Georg Louis, who inherited the Duchy of Lüneburg after the death of his father in law and uncle, George William and later inherited the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg, of Celle, Queen consort, Prisoner of Ahlden 
35 10 Nov 1683  Herrenhausen Schloß (Palace), Hanover, Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Germany   The last British monarch to have been born outside Great Britain.  George IIAugustus Hanover, King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 
36 1694  Castle of Ahlden, Ahlden, Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Germany   Georg Louis acquired a mistress Melusina von Schulenburg and started pointedly neglecting his wife.

Sophia Dorothea remade the acquaintance of Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, a Swedish Count. They began sending each other love letters which, if they are to be believed, suggest that their relationship was consummated. In 1694 the Count disappeared and Sophia Dorothea was divorced by her husband and imprisoned at the Castle of Ahlden. 
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg, of Celle, Queen consort, Prisoner of Ahlden 
37 13 Aug 1704  Blindheim (Blenheim), Bavaria, Germany   The Battle of Blenheim (referred to in some countries as the Second Battle of Höchstädt), was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. France and Germany in opposition to The Holy Roman Empire and her allies Austria, Brandenburg-Prussia, England and the Dutch Republic. King Louis XIV sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna. Realising the danger, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to alleviate the peril to Vienna by marching his forces south from Bedburg and help maintain Emperor Leopold within the Grand Alliance.

French losses were immense, over 30,000 killed, wounded and missing. Moreover, the myth of French invincibility had been destroyed and Louis? hopes of an early and victorious peace had been wrenched from his grasp. The territorial expansion of France was halted and Queen Anne, who had made Marlborough a Duke in 1702, granted him the Park of Woodstock and promised a sum of £240,000 to build a suitable house as a gift from a grateful crown in recognition of his victory - a victory which British historian Sir Edward Creasy considered one of the pivotal battles in history, writing "Had it not been for Blenheim, all Europe might at this day suffer under the effect of French conquests resembling those of Alexander in extent and those of the Romans in durability."

To this day, Blenheim Palace is the only British residence denominated a "palace" which does not belong to royalty. It is still the seat of the Duke of Marlborough. 
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 
38 13 Aug 1704  Blindheim (Blenheim), Bavaria, Germany   The Battle of Blenheim, see John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession.  Anne Stuart, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland 
39 Aft 24 May 1738  Herrnhut, Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   In 1738 John Wesley went to Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany to the Moravian church headquarters to study.  John (Jackie) Benjamin Wesley 
40 27 Jun 1743  Karlstein am Main (Dettingen), Bavaria, Germany   Wolfe acted as Adjutant of his regiment at the Battle of Dettingen. It was the last time that a British monarch (George II) personally led his troops into battle.  James Peter Wolfe 
41 27 Jun 1743  Karlstein am Main (Dettingen), Bavaria, Germany   George II led his troops into the Battle of Dettingen, the last time a British monarch did so.

British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeated a French army under Adrien Maurice de Noailles, 3rd Duke of Noailles, although France and Britain had not yet declared war.  
George IIAugustus Hanover, King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 
42 01 Aug 1759  Minden, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   At the Battle of Minden, an Allied Anglo-German army under Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, defeated a French army under the Marquis de Contades on 1 Aug 1759 during the Seven Years' War. Prince Ferdinand's army suffered 2,800 fatalities; the French lost between 10,000 and 11,000 men.  Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 
43 Between 25 Sep 1805 and 20 Oct 1805  Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany   In 1805 Great Britain had persuaded Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against France.

Bonaparte secretly turned his Grande Armée stationed at Boulogne to march on Ulm to outflank and capture 30,000 prisoners from the Austrian army.

But on 21 Oct 1805 Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar gives the British Royal Navy gained control of the seas. 
Napoléon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy 
44 14 Oct 1806  Auerstedt, Jena, Thuringia, Germany   The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (Auerstädt) were fought on the plateau west of the river Saale, Germany, between Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia. The Prussian army suffered a decisive defeat oly nineteen days after its mobilization. Charles II William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel was wounded and died two days later.  Charles II(Karl) William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel 
45 Between 26 Aug 1813 and 27 Aug 1813  Dresden, Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new Sixth coalition. Bonaparte was able to amass 350,000 troops and assumed command in Germany inflicting a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in victory at the Battle of Dresden.  Napoléon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy 
46 Between 16 Oct 1813 and 19 Oct 1813  Leipzig, Sachsen (Saxony), Germany   Bonaparte was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total.  Napoléon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy 
47 28 Jun 1914  Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany   Kaiser Wilhelm II and Germany were hosting the sailing event on the Bay of Kiel known as Kiel Woche (Kiel Week) with the British Navy as guests when news arrived of the assassination on 28 Jun 1914 of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este. Wilhelm II, grandson of Great Britain's Queen Victoria, had been a close friend of Franz Ferdinand, and he was deeply shocked by his murder. Kiel week was abandoned and the British Navy sailed home leaving with all parties wishing the other well. Wilhelm II offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand, the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement - Serbia (often called 'the blank cheque'). The German and British Navy met again between 31 May 1916 and 1 Jun 1916 at the Battle of Jutland, with significant losses on both sides, the outcome was inconclusive.  Wilhelm (William) II Hohenzollern, 3rd and Last German Emperor, King of Prussia (Preußen) 
48 19 Jan 1919  Weimar, Thuringia, Germany   In Germany The Council of the People's Deputies, a provisional government consisting of three delegates from the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and three from the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), took over executive power and called for a National Assembly (Congress of Councils) on 16 to 21 Dec1918 to convene in Berlin. It decided for parliamentary elections to take place on 19 Jan 1919.

The National Assembly convened in the city of Weimar, giving the future Republic its unofficial name. The Weimar Constitution created a republic under a parliamentary system with the Reichstag elected by proportional representation. The democratic parties obtained 80% of the vote and Friedrich Ebert (born 4 Feb 1871 died 28 Feb 1925) its First President between 11 Febr 1919 and 28 Feb 1925.

In its 14 years the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and hostility from the victors of the First World War. It overcame many discriminatory regulations of the Treaty of Versailles, reformed the currency, unified taxes and its railways and represented a period of cultural innovation in Germany.

In 1920, the German Workers' Party became the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), nicknamed the Nazi Party, and would become a driving force in the collapse of the Weimar Republic. Adolf Hitler (born 20 Apr 1889 Austria died 30 Apr 1945 Berlin, Germany) was named Chairman of the party in July 1921 and in 1933 was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg (2nd President of Germany 12 May 1925 to 2 Aug 1934). Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich (successor to the Holy Roman Empire).

Part of the Nazi Gleichschaltung (totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce), was to bring all Protestant churches into a single Reich Church (German: Reichskirche) with Ludwig Müller (23 Jun 1883 Gütersloh, Germany died 31 Jul 1945 Berlin, suicide) as the Reich's bishop (German: Reichsbischof). Plans to introduce the Aryan Paragraph (exclusion of Jewish rights) into the Church led to a schism and the founding of the competing Confessing Church, a situation that frustrated Hitler and led to the end of Müller's power. 
Wilhelm (William) II Hohenzollern, 3rd and Last German Emperor, King of Prussia (Preußen) 
49 May 1934  Barmen, Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany   Following consultation and advice of pastors and congregations of the Confessing Church (Protestant schism church in opposing efforts to Nazify the German Protestant church) its synod in Barmen (now part of Wuppertal) issued the Barmen Declaration, primarily authored by Karl Barth (b. 10 May 1886 Basel, Switzerland d. 10 Dec 1968 Basel, Switzerland), quoted by Pope Pius XII as the most important theologian since Thomas Aquinas (b. 1225 Aquino, Sicily d. 7 Mar 1274 Fossanova, Sicily - the Catholic Church's greatest theologian and philosopher)). The Barmen Declaration rejected the influence of Nazism on German Christianity, arguing that the Church's allegiance to the God of Jesus Christ should give it the impetus and resources to resist the influence of other 'lords' such as the German Führer, Adolf Hitler. Barth mailed this declaration to Hitler personally consequently losing his Professorship at the University of Bonn and returning to his native Switzerland.

Alfred Rosenberg (b. 12 Jan 1893 Revel, Estonia d. 16 Oct 1946 Nuremberg, Germany, executed by hanging) became an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. A well-known anti-Christian and pagan fanatic he was considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum (the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany). 
Wilhelm (William) II Hohenzollern, 3rd and Last German Emperor, King of Prussia (Preußen) 
50 Between 30 Jun 1934 and 2 Jul 1934  Germany   The Night of the Long Knives (Operation Hummingbird", commonly known in Germany as "Röhm-Putsch") was a Nazi purge orchestrated by Adolf Hitler to remove Ernst Julius Röhm (b. 28 Nov 1887 Munich, Germany d. 2 Jul 1934 Stadelheim Prison, Munich) an Imperial German army officer and later a Nazi leader, a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung (Storm Battalion; SA) and to eliminate other critics of Hitler's regime. At least 85 people died during the purge, although the final death toll may have been into the hundreds, and more than a thousand perceived opponents were arrested.  Wilhelm (William) II Hohenzollern, 3rd and Last German Emperor, King of Prussia (Preußen) 

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