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Report: Timeline for The Middle East

         Description: Navigate around Individuals and historical events

Timeline events are also available via a tab on any Individual with birth and death dates

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 1020 B.C.  Palestine   Regarded as the founder of the Judean royal dynasty and of Jerusalem where he placed the Ark of the Lord. As a boy he slew the Philistine champion, the giant Goliath with a stone from his sling  David, 3rd King of the United Monarchy of Israel 
2 Bef 928 B.C.  Jerusalem, Palestine   Commissioned a magnificent Temple at Jerusalem to house 'the Ark of the Covenant'. The Ark contained the two stone tablets engraved with God's ten commandments to his people. The Ark disappeared when the Babylonians razed the First Temple in the 6th century B.C.  Solomon, 4th King of the United Monarchy of Israel 
3 Abt 1200 B.C.  Byblos (Gebal, Gubla), Lebanon   The first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet (of 22 consonants) was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram. Following the Bronze Age collapse, the Phoenician's managed to retain their skills of writing, navigation, maritime trade and production of Tyrian Purple, a violet-purple dye derived from the Murex sea-snail's shell, from their coastal waters but exploited to local extinction. Phoenician is derived from the Ancient Greek word phoínios, "purple".  Amminadab 
4 Between 934 B.C. and 608 B.C.  Mesopotamia, Iraq   The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 608 BC. During this period, Assyria assumed a position as possibly the most powerful nation on earth, enforcing tributes and mass population relocation.   Jehoash, King of Judah 
5 1274 B.C.  Kadesh (Qadesh), Syria   At about this time, the earliest and largest battle of the Bronze Age took place at the city of Kadesh (also Qadesh), on the Orontes River, Syria.
The Battle of Kadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II. Both sides suffered major losses and the battle ended with the Hittite's offering an innovative new device, a treaty in writing.  
Hezron (Esrom) 
6 2900 B.C.  Uruk, Sumer, Mesopotamia, Iraq   In the First Book of Chronicles the "Land of Nimrod" is used as a synonym for Assyria, and mentioned in the Book of MicahIt. It is said that the "beginning of Nimrod's kingdom" (reshit memelketo) was the towns of "Babel (Babylon, Al Hillah), Uruk, Akkad and Calneh in the land of Shinar" (Mesopotamia) and that he founded these cities, ruled over them, or both.

Uruk the main centre of urbanization during the Uruk Period from 4000 to 3200 B.C. or the Early Bronze Age. This period saw a shift from small agricultural villages to a urban centres with full-time bureaucracy, military, and stratified society. Although other settlements of about 10 hectares existed, they were dwarfed by Uruk being significantly larger and complex. Uruk is thought to be the Biblical (Genesis 10:10) Erech, the second city founded by Nimrod in Shinar. 
Nimrod, King of Shinar 
7 930 B.C.  Palestine   After the death of Solomon, all the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin (called the ten northern tribes) refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king. The rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refused to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects.

Jeroboam, who was not of the Davidic line, was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents. Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem, and about 930 B.C. Jeroboam was initially proclaimed king of the United Monarchy of Israel.

After the revolt at first only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The northern kingdom continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel or Israel, while the southern kingdom was called the Kingdom of Judah.

In the 720s B.C. the northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. 
Rehoboam (Roboam), King of Judah 
8 12 B.C.  Palestine   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  'The Virgin' Mary 
9 Bef 32  Jericho, Palestine   Jesus passed through Jericho where he healed blind beggars and inspired a local chief tax-collector named Zacchaeus to repent of his dishonest practices. The road between Jerusalem and Jericho is the setting for the Parable of the Good Samaritan.

Jericho may be the oldest continuously occupied city in the world having evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BC.

By about 9400 BC a town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings. Te town had a massive stone wall over 3.6m high, and 1.8m wide at the base. Inside the wall was a tower over 3.6m high, with an internal staircase of 22 stone steps. The wall and tower were unprecedented in human history, and would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct. The wall may have been a defence against flood water with the tower used for ceremonial purposes. 
Jesus (Joshua ,Yeshua) of Nazareth, ben David, son of God 
10 Abt 33  Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew (not a Christian), is crucified by Jews on Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem for claiming to be of the line of David, the Messiah (the 'anointed one' or 'Christ').

Only the apostle St. John (brother of St, James) with Jesus' mother Mary remained near the foot of the cross on Calvary as Christ dies. St. John (of Patmos) becomes the author of several New Testament works including the Gospel of John, the Epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation which he would write in on the Island of Patmos, Greece in 95 A.D. before dying at Ephesus, Ionia, Turkey abt 100 A.D.

3 years after Jesus' execution, Saul, known as Paul of Tarsus (5 B.C. to c 67 Rome) a Hellenistic (Hebrew) Jew, is traveling from Jerusalem 'on the road to Damascus', Syria, to arrest followers of Jesus of Nazareth. En route Paul encounters a blinding light and hears revelations from Christ and is converted. St. Paul who probably never met Jesus would be instrumental in documenting 14 epistles of the New Testament. He would be executed in Rome and his remains interred in 'St. Paul's Outside the Walls', Rome.

The Christian Bible which contains the Old and New Testaments was compiled between the 2nd and 12th centuries from historical stories and sagas to inform people 'what life is about; a human interpretation of divine inspiration'. The Old Testament is mainly metaphorical, figure of speech, expressing things in terms of another. The New Testament is regarded by scholars with greater objectivity, in that Jesus probably did exist and the case for his 'resurrection' may yet be proven by a man made religion, science.

The Western civilisation has benefited from its origin in the 'fertile crescent' of the middle east some 13,000 years ago. Man learned how to grow cereals on a scale to feed towns and armies. Armies developed weaponry and a language to share and document its victories. Unlike other continents EurAsia benefits from one land mass that shares a common East West latitude allowing Empires to flourish, innovation to develop and occasionally germs to spread. 
Jesus (Joshua ,Yeshua) of Nazareth, ben David, son of God 
11 68  Jerusalem, Palestine   Following outbreaks of revolt in Jerusalem, Nero sends his general Titus Flavius Vespasianu, son of the Emperor to be, Vespasian (founder of the short Flavian dynasty) to quell the uprising. After a siege, the Temple is 'accidentally' burnt down in 70 AD and by 26 Sep 70 the Romans had regained control. Titus razed what was left of the town, except a few parts of the wall as a reminder.

It took 60 years to rebuilt Jerusalem, renamed Aelia Capitolana. The Jewish population was deported and replaced by soldiers of the Roman 10th Legion.

Suffering punitive taxes, more revolts followed. The last one following Hadrian's outlawing of Judaism. The Bar Kochba revolt lasted 3 years to 135, and was only crushed by ten legions, a third of the Empire's army, at a cost of the lives of (acc. to Cassius Dio) 580,000 Jews. Many Jews were sold as slaves and many Jewish towns were destroyed, including Jerusalem. It marks the end of the old Israel, and the start of the Diaspora, the exodus of Jews.

For the Jew's part in the crucifixion of Christ, Christian disciples would write anti-Semitic texts in their gospels, New Testament, Matthew 27:25 "His blood be on us, and on our children" and the Jewish people would be persecuted for centuries. Similarly, Jesus, a jew, had taken the sins of man upon himself and forgiven his persecutors 
Lucius Domitius'Nero' Ahenobarbus, 5th and last Julio-Claudian Emperor of the Roman Empire 
12 Between 132 and 135  Jerusalem, Palestine   Emperor Hadrian's cultural and political hellenization of Judea bought about a Jewish uprising led by Simon bar Kokhba (Son of the Star), Nasi (Prince) of Israel. 580,000 Jews killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages were razed to the ground as the Romans crushed the uprisings by 132. Jews were banned in perpetuity from Jerusalem and many fled to Saffarad (the Jewish word for Spain), there to be known to this day as Sephadic Jews (the exile from Jerusalem in Spain).  Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (Hadrian) Augustus, 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 
13 Abt 325  Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   Constantine I's mother Helena was in charge of a journey to Jerusalem to gather Christian relics. According to legend she recovered remains of the 'true cross' upon which Christ had been crucified. These relics resurface 600 years later during Henry 'the Fowler''s reign.

Helena ordered earth and rubble to be cleared from the site and that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre should, as Constantine demanded, be raised 'surpassing all the churches of the world in beauty', 
Constantine I'the Great', 1st Emperor of the Christian Roman Empire 
14 Abt 422  The Basilica of St. Simeon, Aleppo, Syria   Respected by the Emperor Theodosius and his wife, Simeon (St. Symeon the Stylite, the Pillar Saint b. abt 390 to 2 Sep 459, Greek: Stylos, column) begins his 37 year vigil atop of an 18m column in about 422 on the crossroads between Alleppo and Antioch, and Apamea and Cyrrhus. His actions were to influence and guide the monastic lifestyle of suffrage, renouncing worldly pursuits in order to fully devote their lives to spiritual work.

The Basilica of St. Simeon was consecrated in 475 in the Common or Christian Era (CE, equates to AD). 
Theodosius II, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
15 614  Jerusalem, Palestine   Zoroastrian (followers of the teachings and philosophies of Zoroaster b. abt 1000 B.C.) Persian forces sack the Eastern Roman Empire city of Jerusalem, massacring citizens and marching off its Patriarch, remaining Christians and relics of the 'True Cross' into captivity.  Heraclius (Herakleios), Byzantine Emperor (Eastern Roman Empire)  
16 628  Nineveh, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Iraq   Emperor Heraclius (Herakleios) captures the Persian city of Nineveh forcing Chosroes II, the 'Shah of Shahs (King of Kings) to flee from his imperial capital at Ctesiphon to Dastergard. Later that year Chosroes II is overthrown (and later murdered that year), his palace sacked, the 'True Cross' recovered and vast booty burned as there was too much to carry off. Heraclius (Herakleios) restored the 'True Cross' to Jerusalem in 630 before triumphantly returning home. Confident in their victories Byzantines refused to pay tributes to tribes on their desert borders and so lacked early warning of their next challengers. The Prophet Muhammad die on 8 Jun 632 which invoked Muslim Arabs to export his teaching to the known world.  Heraclius (Herakleios), Byzantine Emperor (Eastern Roman Empire)  
17 634  Damascus, Syria   Yazid was one of four Muslim Generals who were sent by Caliph Abu Bakr to invade Eastern Roman Syria in 634 AD. He was made Governor of Damascus after the Conquest of Damascus in 634 AD.  Yazid ibn ʾAbī Ṣufyān, Governor of Damascus 
18 Between 15 Aug 636 and 20 Aug 636  Yarmouk (Yarmuk) River, Syria   Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate, led amongst others by General Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan defeat the forces of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (Herakleios)'s Eastern Roman Empire at the Battle of Yarmouk.  Yazid ibn ʾAbī Ṣufyān, Governor of Damascus 
19 Between 15 Aug 636 and 20 Aug 636  Yarmouk (Yarmuk) River, Syria   The Battle of Yarmouk was a first major defeat of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (Herakleios)'s Eastern Roman Empire by Muslim Arab forces 'Saracens' (nomads of the Syrian and Arabian desert at the time of the Roman Empire) of the Rashidun Caliphate, led amongst others by General Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan Heraclius (Herakleios), Byzantine Emperor (Eastern Roman Empire)  
20 Bef 644  Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Palestine   The Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun Caliph Umar, rebuilt and expanded by the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705. Later medieval scripts describe the al-Aqsa Mosque as the third holiest site in Islam.  Umar'the Great'(Farooq'the Great'}, Rashidun Caliph 
21 27 Jan 661  Kufa, Mesopotamia, Iraq   Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite, who slashed him with a poisoned sword. Ali is regarded by Shi'ite's as the rightful successor of the Prophet Muhammad of all Shia  Ali ben Abu Talib, 4th Caliph 'Successor of the Prophet', and one of four ar-Rashidun 'the Rightly Guided', 1st Ismaili Imam in Iraq 
22 692  The Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem, Palestine   Caliph Abd al-Malik created the Dome of the Rock shrine around the rock from which the Prophet Muhammad was taken on a tour of heaven. It is constructed over the site of the Second Jewish Temple which was destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD.  Abdal-Malik, 5th Umayyad Caliph of Damascus 
23 699  Kufa, Mesopotamia, Iraq   Abu Hanifa founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence is born during the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. He dieds in prison in 767. His funeral service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. Later, after many years, a mosque was built in honor of him.  Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph of Damascus 
24 909  Syria   Founder of the Fatimid dynasty in 909  AbūMuḥammadˤAbdul-Lāh (ˤUbaydul-Lāh) al-Mahdī bi'llāh, Founding Fatimid Caliph of Egypt 
25 962  Aleppo, Syria   In the campaigns of 962-963 by brilliant strategy Nikephoros II conquered the province of Cilicia (south east coastal region of Turkey) and advanced to capture Aleppo, Syria (which had fallen to infidel (extremist) Saracen fighters, calling themselves 'mujahidin' (those who exert effort or struggle against) under Khalid ibn al-Walid in 637) in collusion with his nephew and successor, John I Tzimiskes, but made no permanent conquests. It was on these campaigns he became known as 'The Pale Death of the Saracens'. During the sack of Aleppo, the Byzantine army took possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules.

In the course of Nikephoros II victorious campaigns, he had captured a fortress with a fearsome relic, a sword that the Saracens claimed belonged to their prophet Muhammad. They called it Zulfiqar 'the Clevear of Vertebrae'.

The Byzantine's considered that Saracens, who Muhammad had instructed 'Fight those who believe not in God' were hypocritical and used their doctrine to loot in religion's name. Especially repugnant was their creed which stated that 'any warrior who fell far from his own country, in the struggle to spread the dominion of his faith, might be reckoned a martyr, his sins forgiven, his soul translated to paradise'.

When Nikephoros II demanded of his bishops a matching doctrine, the Church recoiled in horror ruling any soldier who shed blood, even in defense of his fellow Christians, existed in a state of sin: only three years of the strictest penance could serve to purge him of the offence. Trust to Providence, the Church advised. 
Nikephoros (Nicephoros) II'Victory Bearer' Phokas, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 
26 18 Oct 1009  Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   During the 14 year gap where no Holy Roman Emperor ruled (between Otto III and Henry II), the Muslim calendar ticked over to a pivotal moment. One of its great Muslim Caliphs al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah looted the treasures of the 700 year old Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem and dismantled it brick by brick.

Hakim was dead by 1021 and within two decades of its destruction, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem was rebuilt. 
Henry II(Heinrich), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany and Italy 
27 18 Oct 1009  Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Golgotha (Hill of Calvary), Jerusalem, Palestine   During the 14 year gap where no Holy Roman Emperor ruled (between Otto III and Henry II), the Muslim calendar ticked over to a pivotal moment.

One of its great Muslim Caliphs, a descendent of Fatima, the Prophet Mohammed's daughter, who called himself 'al-Mahdi' (the Rightly Guided One), al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah of the Cairo based Fatimid Caliphate claimed himself to be an incarnation of God. When he was 10, a year before his accession in 995 he witnessed a mob massacre 100 Christians. Although Hakim's mother was a christian, he thought women promiscuous, and suspicious of Christiams and Jews, 'dhimmis' (non-Muslim people living freely under the protection of an Islamic state). He ordered ordered to be veiled in public, Christians and Jews to wear distinctive black turbans in public, and around their necks Christians to wear crosses, Jews to wear heavy blocks of wood. Christians and Jews were not allowed to employ Muslims. In 1007 Hakim laid plans to desecrate the main focus of the Christians and Jews. When the 400th anniversary of the first Muslim state arrived in 1009 Hakim's Fatimid Muslims set about looting the treasures of the 700 year old Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem and dismantled it brick by brick.

Hakim was dead by 1021 and within two decades of its destruction, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem was rebuilt.  
Abū'Alīal-Manṣūral-Hakim bi-Amr Allāh, Fatimid Caliph of Egypt 
28 Aft 18 Oct 1009  Jerusalem, Palestine   Fulk 'Nerra (the Black)', Count of Anjou pilgrimaged to Jerusalem four times. On his second trip in 1009 he saw the ruined site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre lately desecrated and demolished by the Fatimid saracens. He returns triumphantly to Anjou, France having recovered a fragment of Christ's tomb.  Foulques (Fulk) III'Nerra (the Black)' of, Count of Anjou (Angevin) 
29 1026  Jerusalem, Palestine   Just prior to becoming Duke, Richard III of Normanfy sponsored the largest ever party of 700 pilgrims to Jerusalem, although did not go himself.  Richard III, Duke of Normandy 
30 1035  Jerusalem, Palestine   Pilgrimaged to Jerusalem, perhaps to repent involvement in his brother Richard's death. Traveling through Constantinople, Bobert I Duke of Normandy was long remembered by the Byzantines earning himself the sobriquet 'the Magnificent'. Whilst in Constantinople, Robert met up with Fulk 'Nerra' Robert I'the Magnificent', Duke of Normandy 
31 1087  Jerusalem, Palestine   Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem which causes a momentous shift in power in the middle east. Byzantine Emperor Alexios I appeals to Pope Urban II in Rome for Christians to unite against Muslim Saracens.   Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor (Eastern Roman Empire) 
32 Between 1096 and 1100  Holy Land, Palestine   One of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until his death.

The Crusader emblem was the cross, "crusade" is derived from the French term for taking up the cross, the crucesignati (cross-signed). 
Geoffrey de Boulogne, Duke of Lower Lorraine, Count of Boulogne 
33 1096  Holy Land, Palestine   One of the leaders of the First Crusade  Baldwin I de Boulogne, 1st King of Jerusalem, Count of Edessa 
34 Dec 1096  Holy Land, Palestine   In 1096, Robert II 'Curthose' left for the Holy Land on the First Crusade. At the time of his departure he was reportedly so poor that he often had to stay in bed for lack of clothes. In order to raise money for the crusade, he mortgaged his Duchy to his brother William for the sum of 10,000 marks.

Robert and William had agreed to name each other the Heir Presumptive of England and Normandy respectively. Therefore, when William II died on 2 August 1100, Robert should have inherited the throne of England. But he was on his return journey from the Crusade, marrying a wealthy young bride to raise funds to buy back his duchy. As a result, his brother Henry was able to seize the crown of England for himself. 
Robert II'Curthose', Prince of England, Duke of Normandy 
35 1097  Palestine   Died on First Crusade  Rainald (Reginald) II de Macon, Count Palatine of Burgundy and Count of Mâcon, Vienne and Oltingen 
36 15 Jul 1099  Jerusalem, Palestine   Arriving at the walls of Jerusalem on 7 Jun 1099, after a month of siege Jerusalem is captured on 15 Jul 1099. The crusaders massacre most of its Muslim and the remnants of its Jewish inhabitants. On the Temple mount not a living thing had been left to stir. Later they would expel the native Christian population and create the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Immediately after Jerusalem is captured a dispute arose among the various leaders as to who would rule the newly-conquered territory, The two most worthy candidates being Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, and Raymond of St. Gilles, Count of Toulouse. Neither wished to be crowned king in the city where Christ had worn his crown of thorns; Raymond was perhaps attempting to show his piety and hoped that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway, but Godfrey, the more popular of the two, did no damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader with an unknown or ill-defined title. The path for a secular state was set during Godfrey's rule, and when Godfrey died of an illness in 1100, his brother Baldwin I de Boulogne successfully out-manoeuvered the papal legate Daimbert of Pisa and claimed Jerusalem for himself as a secular 'king of the Latins of Jerusalem'. 
Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, Count of Saint-Gilles 
37 15 Jul 1099  Jerusalem, Palestine   Tancred was one of the first Crusaders to enter the city. He gave his banner to a group of citizens who had fled to the roof of the Temple of Solomon. This should have assured their safety, but they were massacred, along with many others, during the sack of the city. The author of the Gesta Francorum (Deeds of the Franks) records that, when Tancred realised this, he was 'greatly angered'. When the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, Tancred became Prince of Galilee.  Tancred, Prince of Galilee 
38 Abt 1119  Jerusalem, Palestine   After the First Crusade captures Jerusalem in 1099, many Christian pilgrims traveled to visit what they referred to as the Holy Places. However, though Jerusalem was relatively secure, the rest of the Outremer (Overseas, a general name given to the Crusader states established after the First Crusade) was not. Bandits abounded, and pilgrims were routinely slaughtered, sometimes by the hundreds, as they attempted to journey from the coast at Jaffa into the Holy Land.

Two veterans of the First Crusade, the French knight Hugues de Payens and his relative Godfrey de Saint-Omer, proposed to Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, and were granted the creation of a monastic order, the Knights Templar, for the protection of the pilgrims.

In the 1160's the Order of the Knights Templar built a monastic complex, the Temple Church, High Holborn, London as their headquarters in England. The church was constructed on a round design based on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem 
Baldwin II of Edessa, King Of Jerusalem 
39 04 Jul 1187  Hattin (Hittin), Tiberias, Palestine   To unite his forces against the crusader's 'Holy war' Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (Saladin) created a doctrine to make them fight to the bitter end, the only way they could re-conquer the lands taken. He called it Jihad 'struggle in the way of God'. Saladin's forces defeat and capture Guy, King of Jerusalem at he battle of Hattin, at the Horns of Hattin, a square-shaped hill with two peaks that rises about 60 feet overlooking the plains of Hattin (Hittin). Hattin may be the Mount of Beatitudes where Jesus of Nazareth is believed to have preached his Sermon on the Mount.  Guy of Lusignan, King consort of Jerusalem, King of Cyprus 
40 Between 20 Sep 1187 to 2 Oct 1187  Jerusalem, Palestine   With Queen Sibylla's husband held captive after the Battle of Hattin, Saladin lays seige to Jerusalem and the city is eventually regained by the Muslims. Saladin permits Jews and Muslims to return and settle in Jerusalem.

St. Gebre Mesqel Lalibela of the Zagwe Dynasty (Lalibela means 'the bees recognise his sovereignty'), who ruled as Emperor of Ethiopia in the late 12th and early 13th century is said to have visited Jerusalem and then attempted to build a new Jerusalem as his capital at Roha (now Lalibela) in response to the capture of old Jerusalem by Muslims in 1187. The Bete Giyorgis, is one of the many rock-hewn churches at the holy site of Lalibela, Ethiopia that still stand today. Even the town's river is known as the River Jordan. The Ethiopian christian church claims its origins from St. Philip (Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 8:27) who travelled south from Jerusalem to Gaza and met a eunuch who was a high official in charge of the Kandake (Candace) Queen of Ethiopia's treasure. 
Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem, Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon 
41 3 Sep 1260  Ain Jalut, Galilee, Palestine   Möngke Khan became Great Khan in 1251, and immediately set out to implement his grandfather Genghis Khan's plan for world empire. To subdue the nations of the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, Hulagu Khan who proceeded through the Kingdom of Jerusalem towards to confront the major Islamic power, the Mamluk Sultanate.

Baibars was a commander of the Mamluks (Muslims of slave origin) in around 1250, when he defeated the Seventh Crusade of Louis IX of France. He was a commander under Sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: the "Spring of Goliath") in 1260, when the Mamluks decisively defeated the Mongols. After the battle Sultan Qutuz was assassinated while on a hare coursing expedition. It was said that Baibars was involved in the assassination and he succeeded as Sultan of Egypt. Baibars would go on to route the Christian Crusaders from he defeated the Crusaders in many other battles Arsuf, Athlith, Haifa, Safad, Jaffa, Ashkalon, Caesarea. 
St. Louis IX Capet, King of France 
42 1272  Krak des Chevaliers, Syria   While on the ninth crusade Edward I saw the fortress of Krak des Chevaliers and used it as an example for his own later castles in England and Wales. It was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller who were founded 1080 in Jerusalem to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims to the Holy Land. The fortress was described as 'perhaps the best preserved and most wholly admirable castle in the world' by TE Lawrence (of Arabia)  Edward I'Longshanks (Longlegs) ,Hammerofthe Scots' Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Aquitaine, Lord of Ireland 
43 1917  Jerusalem, Palestine   During World War I Germany's ally was the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire of South East Europe, the Middle East and North Africa had existed from 1299 until it was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey established 29 Oct 1923. The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic successor to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

The British waged the Sinai and Palestine Campaign under General Allenby. At the same time, the intelligence officer TE Lawrence (of Arabia) was stirring up the Arab Revolt in the region, given promises that the Arabs would gain the territory with Damascus as capital. They were unaware of a secret Sykes-Picot agreement between the UK and France, with assent of Imperial Russia, which defined their colonial settlement in Western Asia after the expected fall of the Ottoman Empire (France would gain Syria, Lebanon and North Iraq, the UK would gain Jordan and oil rich southern Iraq, Russia would gain Constantinople). Consequences of this Arab betrayal live with the West to this day.

The British defeated the Ottoman Turkish forces in 1917 and occupied Palestine and Syria. Allenby aware of sensitivities in the Holy Land was unable to prevent propaganda back home claiming a victorious crusade.

Under a League of Nations Mandate (the British Mandate of Palestine), Great Britain would rule Palestine from 1920 to 1948, with an intent of creating a 'national home for the Jewish people'. To the Islamic world this was western colonialism and a new crusade. 
George V Frederick Ernest Albert Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, House of Windsor, King of the United Kingdom, the Irish Free State and the Commonwealth Realms, Emperor of India 
44 29 Nov 1947  Palestine   In 1947 the British government withdrew from its commitment to the Mandate of Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Arabs and Jews. The newly created United Nations approved a UN Partition Plan on 29 Nov 1947, dividing the country into two states, one Arab and one Jewish. Jerusalem was to be designated an international city, a corpus separatum, administered by the UN. The Jewish community accepted the plan, but the Arab League and Higher Committee rejected it.

On 14 May 1948, the day before the end of the British Mandate, the Jewish Agency proclaimed independence, naming the country Israel (Zion, the Land of Israel). The following day five Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq invaded Israel, launching the 1948 Arab-Israeli War 
(Albert Frederick Arthur) George VI Windsor, King of the United Kingdom, Ireland and the British Dominions, Emperor of India 
45       Elizabeth II(AlexandraMary) Windsor, Queen of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth Head of State