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Report: Timeline for North America

         Description: Navigate around Individuals and historical events


Timeline events are also available via a tab on any Individual with birth and death dates


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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 1497  Newfoundland and Labrador, Atlantic Canada, Canada   John Cabot lands somewhere on the coast of North America (probably Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island) in 1497 and claims it for King Henry VII of England. Giovanni Caboto (c1450-c1498) was an Italian navigator and explorer and like other Italian explorers took commissions from other countries. He sought and was granted funds from King Henry VII so his explorations to Canada were made under the English flag.  Henry VII Tudor, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 14th Earl of RichmondHenry VII Tudor, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 14th Earl of Richmond 
2 1576  Frobisher Bay, Nunavut, Canada   Seaman who made three voyages to the New World to look for the Northwest Passage  Sir Martin Frobisher 
3 1585  Virginia, USA   Walter Raleigh rose rapidly in Queen Elizabeth I's favour, being knighted in 1585, and was involved in the early English colonisation of the New World in Virginia under a royal patent.  Elizabeth I Tudor, Queen of EnglandElizabeth I Tudor, Queen of England 
4 1620  Plymouth Rock, Cole's Hill, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, USA   After a 3 month voyage, the Pilgrim Fathers land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the Mayflower; found New Plymouth. Click here for John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers  James VI(James I) Stuart, King of Scotland, England and IrelandJames VI(James I) Stuart, King of Scotland, England and Ireland 
5 11 Nov 1620  Provincetown Harbor, Provincetown, Cape Cod, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA   The Mayflower left from Plymouth, Devon, England on 6 Sep 1620 (with William Brewster who had travelled from Leiden, The Netherlands to join the ship) and after a gruelling 66-day journey marked by disease, which claimed two lives, the ship dropped anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod (Provincetown Harbor) on Sunday 11 Nov 1620 (observing the Sabbath no one left the ship on that day). They wintered on board ship and all surviving passengers moved ashore at Plymouth Rock, Cole's Hill, Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA between 21/28 Mar 1621.  Elder William BrewsterElder William Brewster 
6 Nov 1621  Plymouth Plantation, Plymouth, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, USA   William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving, a time to give thanks for the harvest and express gratitude in general  William BradfordWilliam Bradford 
7 1735  Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia, USA   Intent on converting the Indians and to deepen and regulate the religious life of the colonists John and Charles Wesley set sail from England to Savannah, Georgia, USA.

On board ship John Wesley met Moravian Missionaries who's 'evangelical' (from Greek 'euangelion', good news) religion converted emotions into faith struck a chord. Moravian Brethren had been forced out of Bohemia (Czech Republic) in 1722 and settled across the border at Herrnhut, Saxony on land provided by their supporter Count Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf. Their first missionary a potter named Leonard Dober had traveled to preach on the Caribbean island of St. Thomas in 1732.

John Wesley had a disastrous love affair in USA and soon returned to England 
John (Jackie) Benjamin WesleyJohn (Jackie) Benjamin Wesley 
8 13 Sep 1759  Quebec, Canada   The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War. Beginning on 12 Sep 1759 the British Army and Navy commanded by General James Wolfe defeated the French Army, on a plateau just outside the walls of Quebec City which proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, later Canada.  George IIAugustus Hanover, King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-LüneburgGeorge IIAugustus Hanover, King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 
9 13 Sep 1759  Quebec City, Quebec, Canada   After a lengthy siege Wolfe defeated a French force under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran allowing British forces to capture the city of Quebec. Wolfe was killed at the height of the battle due to injuries from three musket balls.

Wolfe's part in the taking of Quebec earned him posthumous fame and he became an icon of Britain's victory in the Seven Years War and subsequent territorial expansion. He was depicted in a painting The Death of General Wolfe. This painting became very famous around the world. Wolfe was posthumously dubbed "The Hero of Quebec", "The Conqueror of Quebec", and also "The Conqueror of Canada" since the capture of Quebec led directly to the capture of Montreal which ended French control of the country. 
James Peter WolfeJames Peter Wolfe 
10 Between 1761 and 1769  Barnstable, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA   Served in the provincial legislature, writing incendiary political pamphlets including "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved" (1764), quote: "The colonists are by the law of nature freeborn, as indeed all men are, white or black". Also n  James'Patriot' OtisJames'Patriot' Otis 
11 1770  Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia, USA   George Whitefield owned slaves using them at his Bethesda Orphanage and to raise money for the orphanage he had slaves work at Providence plantation. He treated his slaves well and they were reputed to be devoted to him. Whitefield was critical of the abuse and neglect of slaves by other owners. When Whitefield died on 30 Sep 1770, he bequeathed his slaves to Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon.

The Second Great Awakening (1790 to 1840s) saw widespread Christian evangelism and conversions and preaching to slaveholders and slaves alike. As the French Revolution arrived in 1789, the USA began to export and market Protestantism. Freed evangelical slaves began returning to Africa. 
Selina Shirley, Countess of Huntingdon 
12 04 Jul 1776  Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA   The American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), also known as the American War of Independence, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen united former British colonies on the North American continent and ended in a global war between several European great powers. The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists and their allies overthrew British rule. In 1775, Revolutionaries seized control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the unifying Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army. The following year, they formally declared their independence (04 Jul 1776) as a new nation, the United States of America (USA).

Amongst its founding fathers was the Puritan polymath, Benjamin Franklin (born 17 Jan 1706 Boston, Massachusetts, USA, died 17 Apr 1790) a major figure in the 'age of Enlightenment' who invented Lightening Conductors and who's theories helped harness the power of Electricity. Franklin influenced the founding of the USA as a secular nation, independent of any church. State freedom of religion had not been seen since the 4th century, and the people's ability to choose their religion would allow religious diversity to flourish. The 1st Amendment to the United States Constitution, Bill of Rights expressly prohibits the US Congress from making laws 'respecting an establishment of religion' or that prohibit the free exercise of religion, laws that infringe the freedom of speech, infringe the freedom of the press, limit the right to peaceably assemble, or limit the right to petition the government for a redress of grievances. 
George III William Frederick Hanover, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandGeorge III William Frederick Hanover, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
13 17 Oct 1781  Yorktown, York County, Virginia, USA   The Siege or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by General Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War, as the surrender of Cornwallis? army prompted the British government to eventually negotiate an end to the conflict.  George III William Frederick Hanover, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelandGeorge III William Frederick Hanover, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
14 19 Oct 1781  Yorktown, York County, Virginia, USA   The Siege of Yorktown from 28 Sep 1781, followed by the Battle of Yorktown and subsequent Surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781 of British Forces led by Lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau.  Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis 
15 02 May 1803  Louisiana, USA   Threatened by invasion and despite the peace Treaty of Amiens, Great Britain declared war on France in May 1803. Faced with imminent war and bankruptcy, Boneparte saw French possessions on mainland North America would be indefensible and sold 828,800 square miles to the USA, 'The Louisiana Purchase' at less than three cents per acre.  Napoléon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of ItalyNapoléon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy 
16 31 May 1889  Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA   The Johnstown Flood (or Great Flood of 1889 as it became known locally) occurred on 31 May 1889 due to a catastrophic failure of the South Fork Dam situated on the Little Conemaugh River 14 miles (23 km) upstream of Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA  Aaron Farmery 
17 4 11 1901  Ogden, Weber County, Utah, USA   Per State of Utah Marriage License.  John Hyram Morris 
18 Apr 1903  St. John, New Brunswick, Atlantic Canada, Canada   The Barr Colony was the last great emigration scheme in English/North American history. Almost 2,000 English men, women and children emigrated to the prairies of western Canada in 1903, crossing the ocean from Liverpool to St. John New Brunswick and continuing by train, wagon and foot to an area set aside for them in what is now Saskatchewan. As other nationalities emigrated in large numbers to Canada, feeling grew in Ottawa to keep "Canada for the English." At about the same time, Rev. Isaac Barr conceived the idea of leading a group of Englishmen and their families to the almost undeveloped areas of the western prairies. Notes from Liz Wallis http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wallis/barrcol/.   Harry Ducker 
19 21 Jul 1925  Rhea County Court House, 1475 Market Street, Dayton, Rhea County, Tennessee, USA   The 'Scopes Trial' often called the 'Scopes Monkey Trial' was an American Civil Liberties Union test case trial of John Scopes, an American high school teacher who contested the Butler Act, which made it unlawful, for Tennessee state-funded educational establishment 'to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.' Often interpreted as forbidding the teaching of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes lost his case, but Tennessee repealed the Butler Act in 1967.  George V Frederick Ernest Albert Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, House of Windsor, King of the United Kingdom, the Irish Free State and the Commonwealth Realms, Emperor of IndiaGeorge V Frederick Ernest Albert Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, House of Windsor, King of the United Kingdom, the Irish Free State and the Commonwealth Realms, Emperor of India 
20 Mar 1941  Washington, District of Columbia, USA   Lend-Lease was a program under which the US supplied the United Kingdom, Soviet Union, China, France and Allied nations vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. A total of $50.1 billion worth of supplies were shipped: $31.4 billion to Britain, $11.3 billion to the Soviet Union, $3.2 billion to France and $1.6 billion to China. Reverse Lend Lease services (rent on air bases) that went to the US totaled $7.8 billion, of which $6.8 billion came from the British and the Commonwealth. The terms of the agreement provided that the material was to be used until time for their return or destruction. Supplies after the termination date were sold to Britain at a discount, for Ł1,075 million, payment was to be stretched out over 50 years at 2% interest. The final payment of $83.3 million due on 31 Dec 2006 (repayment having been deferred on several occasions), was made on 29 Dec 2006 (the last working day of the year). After this final payment Britain's Economic Secretary, Ed Balls, formally thanked the US for its wartime support. Canada operated a similar program that sent $4.7 billion in supplies to Britain and the Soviet Union.

This act also ended the pretense of the neutrality of the US and consequently Germany had its submarines attack US ships. 
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-ChurchillSir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill 
21 07 Dec 1941  Pearl Harbor, O'ahu, Hawaii, USA   On 7 Dec 1941 Churchill received news that The Empire of Japan had conducted a miss-communicated unannounced military strike against the US fleet at Pearl Harbor bringing the US into World War II, much to Churchill's and Britain's relief.  Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-ChurchillSir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill 
22 30 12 1944  Oakland, Alameda County, California, USA   Correct date of marriage. Married in a Presbyterian church in Oakland.  George Orton Canning 
23 5 Mar 1946  Westminster College, Fulton, Callaway County, Missouri, USA   Churchill delivers his 'Sinews of Peace' speech:

"...From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow." 
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-ChurchillSir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill 
24 1982  Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, USA   Songwriter, record producer and musician most famous for writing the title track of Michael Jackson's Thriller, the biggest-selling album of all time.  Rodney L Temperton