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Report: Timeline for Ancient Worlds

         Description: Navigate around Individuals and historical events

Timeline events are also available via a tab on any Individual with birth and death dates

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# History: Date History: Place History Full Name
1 07 Aug or 10-08 Sep 480 B.C.  Thermopylae, Greece   300 Spartans led by King Leonidas I and an Allied force of approximately 7,000 defend Greece at the Pass at Thermopylae from Xerxes I's Persian army, alleged by ancient sources to have numbered in the millions. All the Spartans were killed by the victorious Persians. The Greeks took inspiration from Leonidas' Spartan sacrifice, winning the naval Battle of Salamis (Sep 480 B.C.) and one year later at the Battle of Plataea (Aug 479 B.C.) where the Greek army won a decisive victory, destroying much of the Persian army, and ending the invasion of Greece.  Leonidas I, King of Sparta 
2 1020 B.C.  Palestine   Regarded as the founder of the Judean royal dynasty and of Jerusalem where he placed the Ark of the Lord. As a boy he slew the Philistine champion, the giant Goliath with a stone from his sling  David, 3rd King of the United Monarchy of Israel 
3 1150 B.C.  Egypt   According to the Bible (Num i. 7) Nahshon is at least 20 years old during the census in the Sinai, at the beginning of The Exodus, the story of the departure of the Israelites from ancient Egypt. A minority of scholars argue that the Exodus narrative preserves a genuine tradition dating back to the Bronze Age collapse and the loss of Egyptian control over Canaan during the 12th century B.C.  Nahshon (Naasson) 
4 12 B.C.  Palestine   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  'The Virgin' Mary 
5 12 Nov 164 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus 
6 1225 B.C.  Mount Sinai, Saint Catherine, Egypt   Moses is given the Ten Commandments  Moses 
7 1274 B.C.  Kadesh (Qadesh), Syria   At about this time, the earliest and largest battle of the Bronze Age took place at the city of Kadesh (also Qadesh), on the Orontes River, Syria.
The Battle of Kadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II. Both sides suffered major losses and the battle ended with the Hittite's offering an innovative new device, a treaty in writing.  
Hezron (Esrom) 
8 1280 B.C.  Hattusa (Bogazkale), Turkey   Alaksandu, suggested to be Paris (King Priam's son from Homer's 'the Iliad'), a later ruler of the city of Troy (called Wilusa by the Hittites) established peace between Wilusa and Hatti (the Hittite Empire). Known as the Alaksandu treaty.  Paris (Alaksandu ,Alexandrosof Ilion), Prince of Troy 
9 133 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   As a Plebeian Tribune, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus's reforms of agrarian legislation caused political turmoil in the Roman Republic. The land reforms threatened the holdings of rich landowners in Italy. He was murdered along with many of his supporters, by members of the Roman Senate and supporters of the conservative Optimate faction.  Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus 
10       Judah (Judas) 
11 206 B.C.  Ilipa, Alcalá del Río, Seville (Sevilla), Andalucia, Spain   Scipio achieved a decisive victory in 206 B.C. over the full Carthaginian levy at the Battle of Ilipa (now the city of Alcalá del Río, near Hispalis, now called Seville), which resulted in the evacuation of Hispania by the Punic commanders.  Publius Cornelius Scipio, Africanus 
12 206 B.C.  Italica, Santiponce, Seville (Sevilla), Andalucia, Spain   Italica was founded in 206 BC by the great Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio (later given the nickname Africanus) to settle his victorious veterans from the Second Punic Wars against Hannibal and the Carthaginians, and close enough to the Guadalquivir to control the area. The name Italica reflected the veterans' Italian origins.  Publius Cornelius Scipio, Africanus 
13 218 B.C.  (Iberia), Hispania   General Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, Calvus fought in the Second Punic War in Iberia, also referred to by the Romans as The War Against Hannibal, from 218 to 202 B.C.

After assaulting Saguntum, Valencia, Spain (then Hispania (Iberia)), Hannibal (b. 248 B.C. Carthage, Tunisia d. 183/2) surprised the Romans in 218 B.C. by leading the Iberians, and three dozen elephants through the Alps into Italy. Although Hannibal surprised the Romans and thoroughly beat them on the battlefields of Italy, he lost his only siege engines and all but one of his elephants to the cold temperatures and icy mountain paths. In the end it allowed him to defeat the Romans, notably at the Battle of Cannae (2 Aug 216 B.C.) but unable to win the war by taking Rome. 
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, Calvus (the Bald) 
14 25 May 240 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Lucius Cornelius Scipio, Barbatus 
15 2900 B.C.  Uruk, Sumer, Mesopotamia, Iraq   In the First Book of Chronicles the "Land of Nimrod" is used as a synonym for Assyria, and mentioned in the Book of MicahIt. It is said that the "beginning of Nimrod's kingdom" (reshit memelketo) was the towns of "Babel (Babylon, Al Hillah), Uruk, Akkad and Calneh in the land of Shinar" (Mesopotamia) and that he founded these cities, ruled over them, or both.

Uruk the main centre of urbanization during the Uruk Period from 4000 to 3200 B.C. or the Early Bronze Age. This period saw a shift from small agricultural villages to a urban centres with full-time bureaucracy, military, and stratified society. Although other settlements of about 10 hectares existed, they were dwarfed by Uruk being significantly larger and complex. Uruk is thought to be the Biblical (Genesis 10:10) Erech, the second city founded by Nimrod in Shinar. 
Nimrod, King of Shinar 
16 390 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   Rome was founded from a collection of villages in 753 B.C. Its subsequent monarchy was overthrown in 509 B.C. when it was declared a Republic. In 390 B.C. the Battle of the Allia, near the Allia river, was the first Gallic invasion of Italy, which saw the Roman army defeated and the Gauls to sack Rome.  Gnaeus Scipio 
17 477 B.C.  Peloponnese, Greece   The Delian League was founded in 477 B.C., an association of 173 Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory at the Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) at the end of the Greco-Persian Wars. The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 B.C. Shortly after its inception Athens began to exploit the League's navy for its own benefit. This frequently lead to conflict between Athens and less powerful members of the League. By 431 B.C. Athens' control of the Delian League prompted the Peloponnesian War led by Sparta.

Thucydides' writes in his History of the Peloponnesian War an account (The Melian Dialogue) of the confrontation between the neutral island people of Melos (now Milos, Greece), a colony of Sparta, and the Athenians in 416-415 B.C. The two sides met to present their arguments where The Athenians' demanded that Melos should submit. The leaders of Melos refused and the Athenians killed their men, enslaved their women and children, and repopulated Melos as an Athenian state. The conquest of Melos was ironic because the Athenians wanted to prove their strength but acquired their power by destroying the weakest and most defenseless nations in the Peloponnese.

The Delian League was dissolved upon the Peloponnesian victory in 404 B.C. 
Pleistarchus, King of Sparta 
18 499 B.C.  Athens, Greece   Sparta was a totalitarian city state with a militaristic culture that considered itself leader of the Greeks enforcing an hegemony (dominance over other groups).

In 499 Athens a city state with citizenship (Polis) sent troops to aid the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who were rebelling against the Persian Empire (Ionian Revolt). This provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades the Younger (b. 550 B.C. d. 489 B.C.) and Themistocles (b. 524 B.C. d. 459 B.C.) (Persian Wars). In 490 the Athenians, led by Miltiades, prevented the first invasion of the Persians, guided by king Darius I at the Battle of Marathon B.C. In the 5th century B.C. Athenians would extol their virtues of eunomia (good order) and their cultural and democratic achievements would form the basis of Western civilization. 
Cleomenes I(Kleomenes), King of Sparta 
19 55 B.C.  Kent, England   Julius Caesar leads the first Roman invasion of Britain. Although he gained a beachhead on the coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul (France) for the winter. He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time.  Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic 
20 6 Apr 46 B.C.  Ras Dimas (Thapsus), Tunisia   The Battle of Thapsus was a decisive Caesarian victory against Republican forces of the Optimates, led by Quintus Caecillius Metellus Scipio.

The Optimates were the traditionalist majority of the late Roman Republic who wished to limit the power of the popular assemblies and the Tribunes of the Plebs, and to extend the power of the Senate.

In Utica, Cato did not participate in the battle and, unwilling to live in a world led by Caesar and refusing even implicitly to grant Caesar the power to pardon him, he committed suicide. 
Marcus Cato, the Younger 
21 6 Apr 46 B.C.  Ras Dimas (Thapsus), Tunisia   Defeated by Caesarian's at The Battle of Thapsus  Quintus CaeciliusMetellus Pius Scipio Nasica 
22 82 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   As dictator rei publicae constituendae (Dictator for the Reconstitution of the Republic) Sulla had the Senate draw up a list of those he considered enemies of the state and published the list in the Roman Forum. The office of dictator, which had not been used since the Second Punic War over a century before. Any man whose name appeared on the proscribed list was stripped of his citizenship and excluded from all protection under law; reward money was given to any informer who gave information leading to the death of a proscribed man and any person who killed a proscribed man was entitled to keep part of his estate (the remainder went to the state). No person could inherit money or property from the proscribed men, nor could any woman married to a proscribed man remarry after his death. Many victims of proscription were decapitated and their heads were displayed on spears in the Forum.  Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Dictator of the Roman Republic 
23 87 B.C.  Rome (Roma), Lazio (Latium), Italy   A comet (later called Halley's comet) appears in the night sky  Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic 
24 930 B.C.  Palestine   After the death of Solomon, all the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin (called the ten northern tribes) refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king. The rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refused to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects.

Jeroboam, who was not of the Davidic line, was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents. Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem, and about 930 B.C. Jeroboam was initially proclaimed king of the United Monarchy of Israel.

After the revolt at first only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined Judah. The northern kingdom continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel or Israel, while the southern kingdom was called the Kingdom of Judah.

In the 720s B.C. the northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Assyrian Empire. 
Rehoboam (Roboam), King of Judah 
25 Abt 1200 B.C.  Byblos (Gebal, Gubla), Lebanon   The first inscription in the Phoenician alphabet (of 22 consonants) was found, on the sarcophagus of Ahiram. Following the Bronze Age collapse, the Phoenician's managed to retain their skills of writing, navigation, maritime trade and production of Tyrian Purple, a violet-purple dye derived from the Murex sea-snail's shell, from their coastal waters but exploited to local extinction. Phoenician is derived from the Ancient Greek word phoínios, "purple".  Amminadab 
26 Abt 1245 B.C.  England   Legend suggests that the British race are descended from Trojans. Aeneas of Troy fled to Britain after the The Trojan War and siege of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks).

The Trojans brought Chariots which Julius Ceaser faced and reported about in 55 B.C. 
Aeneas, Trojan Hero 
27 Abt 1250 B.C.  Troy (Trōia, Wilusa), Troad (Troas), Turkey   The Trojan War and siege of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks).  Aeneas, Trojan Hero 
28 Abt 2344 B.C.  Mount Ararat, Turkey   Noah saves his family and representatives of all animals from the flood by constructing an ark which comes to rest on Mount Ararat. Genesis chapters 6?9.

Could also be due to a comet airburst, see Justinian I 
29 Abt 950 B.C.  Aksum, Ethiopia   Tradition credits Menelik I, Emperor of Ethiopia (a son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba), with bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, following a visit to Jerusalem to meet his father upon reaching adulthood  Menelik I Ebna la-Hakim (Ibn Al-Hakim, Son of the Wise), 1st Emperor of Ethiopia 
30 Bef 928 B.C.  Jerusalem, Palestine   Commissioned a magnificent Temple at Jerusalem to house 'the Ark of the Covenant'. The Ark contained the two stone tablets engraved with God's ten commandments to his people. The Ark disappeared when the Babylonians razed the First Temple in the 6th century B.C.  Solomon, 4th King of the United Monarchy of Israel 
31 Between 1260 B.C. and 1240 B.C.  Troy (Trōia, Wilusa), Troad (Troas), Turkey   The Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer. 'The Iliad' relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders.  Helen of Troy 
32 Between 850 B.C. and 750 B.C.  Greece   Using a 30 letter alphabet which included 5 vowels and probably derived from wisdom passed on by Phonecian traders and their 22 consonant alphabet, Homer writes The lliad (sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium). An epic poem set during the Trojan War (1200 B.C.), the ten-year siege of Ilium by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.  Jotham, King of Judah 
33 Between 1206 B.C. and 1150 B.C.  Middle East   Between 1206 and 1150 BCE, the Bronze Age collapse saw a cultural decline of the Mycenaean kingdoms (pre-Grecian), the Hittite Empire in Anatolia (now Turkey) and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Canaan, interrupting trade routes and extinguished literacy (symoblic writing by skilled scribes for accounting and royal commands). The Bronze Age collapse in the Aegean was characterized by the raids from migratory peoples and their subsequent resettlement. The Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah explicitly refers to them by the term "the foreign-countries (or 'peoples') of the sea" (Sea Peoples) in his Great Karnak Inscription.   Ram (Aram) 
34 Between 264 B.C. and 241 B.C.  Sicily, Italy   The First Punic War (Latin for Phoenician) was fought partly on land in Sicily and Africa, but was largely a Naval war. The Punics were western Semitic-speaking peoples originating from Carthage, Tunisia who originated from sea faring Phoenician traders, Cypriot settlers, and North African Berbers. The war began as a local conflict in Sicily between Hiero II of Syracuse, Sicily, and the Mamertines of Messina, Sicily. The Romans began with no knowledge of Naval warfare but by copying their opponents fleet and adding an innovative boarding device called a Corvus, the Romans were victorious seizing Sicily.

Carthage spent the years following the war improving its finances and expanding its colonial empire in Hispania (Iberia) under the militaristic Barcid family. In 219 B.C. Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, attacked Saguntum in Hispania, a city allied to Rome, sparking the Second Punic War. 
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, Asina (Donkey) 
35 Between 934 B.C. and 608 B.C.  Mesopotamia, Iraq   The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 608 BC. During this period, Assyria assumed a position as possibly the most powerful nation on earth, enforcing tributes and mass population relocation.   Jehoash, King of Judah 
36 Jan 49 B.C.  Rubicon River, Emilia-Romagna, Italy   The previous year, the Senate, led by his son-in-law Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a magistrate. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. In Jan 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, at that time the frontier boundary of Italy, with only one legion and ignited civil war.  Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic